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Naturalization class students intent on listening to their teachers Mr. & Mrs. Berhbert Brauer of the American Legion

Descriptive

TitleInfo
Title
Naturalization class students intent on listening to their teachers Mr. & Mrs. Berhbert Brauer of the American Legion
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Brauer
NamePart (type = given)
Herbert
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrelator); (type = text)
Depicted
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Brauer
NamePart (type = given)
Herbert
NamePart (type = termsOfAddress)
Mrs.
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrelator); (type = text)
Depicted
TypeOfResource
StillImage
Genre (authority = AAT)
photographs
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (keyDate = yes); (point = start); (qualifier = inferred)
1952
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (keyDate = no); (point = end); (qualifier = inferred)
1959
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = marcform)
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
image/jpeg
Extent
1 image
Abstract (type = description)
Seabrook championed its “rehabilitation” of Japanese American citizens and immigrants requiring further "Americanization." When the 1952 Walter-McCarran Act permitted Asian immigrants to naturalize, Seabrook actively promoted - and documented - the occasion. Here, Issei signed up for a "fundamentals of American history" class taught by the American Legion, to prepare them for their citizenship test.
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
World War, 1939-1945
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Japanese Americans
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Immigrants
Subject (authority = NJCCS)
Temporal
Postwar Years (1945-1970)
Subject
HierarchicalGeographic
Country
UNITED STATES
State
New Jersey
County
Cumberland County
City
Seabrook Farms (Seabrook, N.J.)
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Seabrook Farms
Identifier (type = local)
SBFarms
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.3/SBFarms.Photograph.6010
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3KS6STV
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Seabrook Educational and Cultural Center)
NjSaECC
Extension
DescriptiveEvent
Type
Digital exhibition
Label
Invisible Restraints: Life and Labor at Seabrook Farms
AssociatedObject
Type
Exhibition section
Relationship
Forms part of
Name
"Americanization" and Reparations for Internment
Detail
Discrimination and suspicion forced Japanese Americans to perform their patriotism in ways that were not required of other Americans or European immigrants, and was crucial to their safety and self-preservation. For example, when white soldiers harassed paroled Japanese Americans in transit to Seabrook, Yager commended the released internees, on behalf of the WRA, for quietly tolerating the abuse with no “argument, disorder, shoving, or man-handling.” At Seabrook, the company constantly captured proof of Japanese Americans’ patriotism and social “rehabilitation” through the propaganda it provided. At Seabrook, the WRA and company officials emphasized a program of social reintegration, an ambiguous concept given the fact that many Nisei had only known the United States as a home, had attended public high schools and universities in California and Washington, and had grown up loving American movies, food, and sports the same as their non-Asian American peers. The Issei sent to Seabrook did not receive the right to naturalize as American citizens until 1952 when the federal statute was changed. Many had children who served in the war, with at least three mothers being rewarded “Gold Stars” – the medal given to those who lost sons in the service.

Some Nisei saw the internment camps and Seabrook as an opportunity to seize leadership from their immigrant parents and to take a more prominent role in defining the needs and interests of the community as a whole. Still, the mixed feelings that released internees had about Seabrook reflected the fact their choices remained limited by racism and their parole status. Yoshiko Hasegawa recalled how the “great Japanese spirit worked so hard so that Mr. Seabrook was able to upgrade his rickety plant.” This fact would resurface in the movements for redress, when largely Nisei activists campaigned for monetary reparations for internment. Testifying before the redress commission appointed by Congress in 1980, William Kochiyama recalled of his experience at Seabrook that, “Any promotions to the top positions were made available to the Caucasians.” Nor is there any evidence that Seabrook backed former internees in their attempts to win redress from the federal government, despite the fact that the company directly benefited from the fact that Issei and Nisei workers were barred from working on their own farms in California and other Western states. Only after years of organizing did incarcerated Japanese Americans receive a formal apology from the government and living survivors received a onetime $20,000 redress payment for the trauma and financial devastation caused by internment. Reparations discriminated against Japanese Peruvians, who, despite having lost all of their assets through internment, only received $5,000 in 1998 as part of a government settlement to a class action lawsuit.
AssociatedObject
Type
Exhibition caption
Relationship
Forms part of
Name
Naturalization class students intent on listening to their teachers Mr. & Mrs. Berhbert Brauer of the American Legion
Detail
Seabrook championed its “rehabilitation” of Japanese American citizens and immigrants requiring further "Americanization." When the 1952 Walter-McCarran Act permitted Asian immigrants to naturalize, Seabrook actively promoted - and documented - the occasion. Here, Issei signed up for a "fundamentals of American history" class taught by the American Legion, to prepare them for their citizenship test.

Seabrook Educational and Cultural Center, New Jersey Digital Highway
AssociatedObject
Type
Placement in digital exhibition
Relationship
Forms part of
Name
67
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf)
2016
Note
Naturalization class students intent on listening to their teachers Mr. & Mrs. Berhbert Brauer of American Legion, Shoemaker Post #95 of Bridgeton, New Jersey.
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = NJDH); (ID = rulibRdec0001)
This resource may be copyright protected. You may make use of this resource, with proper attribution, for educational and other non-commercial uses only. Contact the contributing organization to obtain permission for reproduction, publication, and commercial use.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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Source

LocalBibID (DATE = ); (TYPE = )
Seabrook, John M. 006 - Arch 2
Shelving
Locator (TYPE = Other)
Seabrook, John M. 006 - Arch 2
SourceTechnical (TYPE = Photographic)
Format (TYPE = )
Photoprint (direct positive)
Color
Black and white
Image
Shape
Rectangle
Orientation
Portrait
Condition
Rating
Good (stable, very usable)
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Technical

Format (TYPE = mime); (VERSION = )
application/x-tar
FileSize (UNIT = bytes)
25681408
Checksum (METHOD = SHA1)
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ContentModel
Photograph
PreservationLevel
High
DateCreated
2006-06-04
CompressionScheme
Uncompressed
ColorSpace
BlackisZero
CreatingApplication (DATECREATED = 2006-06-04); (VERSION = CS2)
Adobe Photoshop
OperatingSystem (VERSION = 5.1.2600)
Microsoft Windows XP Professional
Orientation
ImageOrientation
Normal
DisplayOrientation
Portrait
Sampling
SamplingSize
600
SamplingUnit
inch
Storage
Medium
Hard Disk
Format (TYPE = mime); (VERSION = NULL)
application/x-tar
Format (TYPE = ); (VERSION = )
image/tiff
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