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Bus stops and crime

Descriptive

TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo
Title
Bus stops and crime
SubTitle
do bus stops increase crime opportunities in local neighborhoods?
Identifier
ETD_1805
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.2/rucore10002600001.ETD.000051322
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3Q52PT4
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007); (type = text)
English
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Criminal Justice
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Bus stops
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Local transit crime
Abstract
Mass transit is often thought to be dangerous, eliciting concerns for personal security when waiting for and traveling on mass transit. One of the first steps in preventing crime in mass transit environments is to obtain accurate figures of crime. There are two mechanisms linking mass transit to crime: extension of offenders’ journey-to-crime and development of crime attractors and generators. The first mechanism has been tested by comparing crime patterns when a new light rail system was expanded into new areas; these studies reported that new transit systems do not change crime patterns. Testing the second mechanism, whether mass transit enhances crime opportunities in the neighborhoods by attracting targets and offenders alike, however, faces more challenges; testing the impact of small places on larger areas such as transit stations on crime is fraught with difficulties due to the interactions with their surrounding environments. These difficulties are even more relevant for bus stops located without clear demarcation or controlled access.
Using frameworks of routine activity, crime pattern, and rational choice theories, the present study set out to investigate the relationships between bus stops and crime using Newark, New Jersey as the study area. To delineate the impact of bus stops on their surroundings from other possible covariates, the existence of commercial activities in the areas was also examined. The present research study examined five crime types: robbery, aggravated assault, motor vehicle theft, theft from motor vehicle, and burglary.
To better understand the impacts of spatial aspects of the data, several data analyses methods were utilized. First, the study examined the magnitude and structure of spatial dependence in the data. Second, spatial process models were performed and compared with the OLS regression results to examine the impacts of spatial aspects on the regression results. Third, to address non-normality and spatial dependence of the data, the count response model was run by adding spatial lag as one of the predictors.
The data analysis results showed that both bus stops and commercial establishments were associated with increased crime in the neighborhoods. Among the business types, some of them displayed more robust relationships than others. For instance, the category of food store was almost always significant to increased crime whereas banks were not statistically significant across crime types and regression methods.
Considering the fact that fear of crime plays a strong role as actual risk of crime in making travel decisions, it is suggested that the physical and social incivilities should be analyzed by performing an environmental survey using case-control design. In addition, future research should incorporate both short-term and long-term temporal analysis.
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
Extent
ix, 341 p. : ill.
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 186-194)
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Sung-suk Violet Yu
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Yu
NamePart (type = given)
Sung-suk Violet
NamePart (type = date)
1971
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
DisplayForm
Sung-suk Violet Yu
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Clarke
NamePart (type = given)
Ronald
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Ronald V. Clarke
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Felson
NamePart (type = given)
Marcus
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Marcus Felson
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Maxfield
NamePart (type = given)
Michael
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Michael G. Maxfield
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Ratcliffe
NamePart (type = given)
Jerry
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Jerry Ratcliffe
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - Newark
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2009
DateOther (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2009-05
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - Newark Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10002600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = GS); (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Notice
Note
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
Note
RightsHolder (ID = PRH-1); (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Yu
GivenName
Sung-suk
Role
Copyright holder
Telephone
Address
Email
ContactInformationDate
RightsEvent (ID = RE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
Original copyright research
Label
Place
DateTime
Detail
AssociatedEntity (ID = AE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Role
Copyright holder
Name
Sung-suk Yu
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - Newark
AssociatedObject (ID = AO-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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Technical

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ETD
MimeType (TYPE = file)
application/pdf
MimeType (TYPE = container)
application/x-tar
FileSize (UNIT = bytes)
4300800
Checksum (METHOD = SHA1)
c51a6d8fcc8e708d509500b39d558dd59c917ee6
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