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Do unique mechanisms underlie the expression of attention problems in anxious and inattentive-impulsive youth?

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TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo (ID = T-1)
Title
Do unique mechanisms underlie the expression of attention problems in anxious and inattentive-impulsive youth?
SubTitle
implications for differential diagnosis and treatment
PartName
PartNumber
NonSort
Identifier (displayLabel = ); (invalid = )
ETD_2159
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.2/rucore10001600001.ETD.000051920
Language (objectPart = )
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2); (type = code)
eng
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
Subject (ID = SBJ-1); (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Psychology
Subject (ID = SBJ-2); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--Treatment
Subject (ID = SBJ-3); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Attention-deficit-disordered youth
Subject (ID = SBJ-4); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Anxiety disorders--Treatment
Abstract
Accumulating evidence suggests that unique mechanisms may underlie the expression of attention problems in youth Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and anxiety disorders (e.g., AD/HD-Inattentive Type and Generalized Anxiety Disorder). Kendall (2000) proposed that anxiety may be associated predominantly with emotion-based “distortions” in cognitive processing (e.g., misappraisal of the social/interpersonal environment, attentional bias toward perceived threat/danger), while inattention in AD/HD youth may be linked to more global cognitive “deficiencies” (e.g., selective/sustained attention, inhibitory control; Barkley, 1997). The current study compared performance of anxious (ANX; n=21; 8-17 years), inattentive-impulsive (I-I; n=22, 9-16 years), and typically developing children (NC; n=22; 8-13 years) on neurocognitive tests of both general (Stroop Color-Word Test, SCW; Conners’ Continuous Performance Test, CPT) and emotion-based attentional processes (Emotional Stroop, ES; Faces Dot Probe Task, FDP). As hypothesized, I-I demonstrated poorer sustained attention and inhibitory control, as evidenced by lower CPT commission error raw scores, relative to ANX and NC, and a non-significant trend toward higher CPT omission error T-scores, relative to ANX. In addition, ANX demonstrated superior selective attention, relative to I-I, as indicated by higher SCW raw scores (i.e., more items completed in 45 seconds), higher SCW T-scores, and fewer SCW errors. As predicted, ANX demonstrated greater attentional bias toward threat cues, relative to I-I, as indicated by greater FDP bias scores in response to angry faces. No significant group differences were found in bias scores on happy or sad trials. In addition, ANX showed a trend toward significant “absolute bias” scores (i.e., relative to zero) in response to angry faces alone, suggesting a potential emotion-specific attentional bias toward threat cues in anxious youth; I-I exhibited an “absolute bias” toward sad faces, alone. ES bias scores were not significant and did not distinguish between groups. The findings provide initial evidence for the neuropsychological differentiation of attention problems in anxious (i.e., threat-related attentional bias) and inattentive-impulsive children (i.e., general selective/sustained attention), suggesting the potential utility of cognitive assessment as an aid for differential diagnosis and subsequent treatment of youth anxiety and AD/HD.
PhysicalDescription
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electronic resource
Extent
v, 74 p.
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 51-66)
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Adam Scott Weissman
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Weissman
NamePart (type = given)
Adam Scott
NamePart (type = date)
1980-
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author
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Adam Scott Weissman
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Chu
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Brian
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chair
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Advisory Committee
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Brian C. Chu
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NamePart (type = family)
Bates
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Marsha
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internal member
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Advisory Committee
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Marsha E. Bates
Name (ID = NAME-4); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Mohlman
NamePart (type = given)
Jan
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internal member
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Advisory Committee
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Jan Mohlman
Name (ID = NAME-5); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Cooperberg
NamePart (type = given)
Mark
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
outside member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Mark Cooperberg
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
degree grantor
Name (ID = NAME-2); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
school
OriginInfo
DateCreated (point = ); (qualifier = exact)
2009
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2009-10
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3DB821K
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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The author owns the copyright to this work
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Notice
Note
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
Note
RightsHolder (ID = PRH-1); (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Weissman
GivenName
Adam
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Copyright holder
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Permission or license
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Place
DateTime
Detail
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Copyright holder
Name
Adam Weissman
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
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Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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Technical

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ETD
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application/pdf
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application/x-tar
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276480
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