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Metal contamination in critical watershed in the Highlands drainage basin

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TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo
Title
Metal contamination in critical watershed in the Highlands drainage basin
SubTitle
geochemistry and degradation of soil, sediment and water quality
TitleInfo (type = alternative)
Title
Geochemistry and degradation of soil, sediment and water quality
Identifier
ETD_2244
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.2/rucore10002600001.ETD.000052186
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2); (type = code)
eng
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Environmental Science
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Water--Pollution--New York (State)--Hudson Highlands
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Heavy metals--Environmental aspects--New York (State)--Hudson Highlands
Abstract
Remnants of extensive mining operations in the Highlands Province have undergone natural attenuation for the past century or more but still pose an environmental threat to this critical watershed in some cases. The Highlands watershed supplies water to over 15 million people in the 4-state area (Pennsylvania to Connecticut). This study shows the degree and extent of metal contamination from two worst-case scenarios, the Phillips sulfide mine and the Sterling Lake magnetite mines.
Acid mine drainage (AMD) at Phillips Mine was identified as the point source of metal contamination with a pH < 3, (minimum pH 1.78). Metal contamination
upstream exceeded local water standards: Al by 1.7, Fe 2.3, Cu 1.2, Co 2.0 and Ni 1.2 orders of magnitude. Efflorescent salts temporarily immobilized Fe2+, SO42-, metals and acidity during dry periods. During wet season, the melanterite salts dissolved completely and acidity remained at pH < 3 at the point source. Sharp declines in Fe, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn occurred at pH 2.58 and 2.71 and at 3.07 and 4.06 with sediments showing an increase in these metals downstream.
Phillips Mine soils contained trace metals, pH < 4 and organic matter (OM) <2.5%. Mn-oxides are the major sinks for Co, Cr and Ni (r=0.72, r=0.89, r=0.80, respectively), and Fe-oxides for Cu and Pb (r=0.76, r=0.83, respectively). Copper was determined as the major contaminant. Metal reduction is occurring
through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD, leaving behind substantial contaminants << 0.5km from the source, suggesting contamination is localized.
Sterling mine soils with pHCaCl2 3.65 – 5.91 contain two soil types: disturbed metal-rich soils and undisturbed OM-rich soils. Cr and Ni were the main
contaminants. OM retained Cr closer to the surface (r = 0.96). With increasing depth, sesquioxides (Fe2O3=r= 0.74; Al2O3=r = 0.92) sorbed Cr. Ni-Cr (r=0.98) and V-Cr (r=0.78) correlations suggest similar retention mechanisms for these elements. Metals in water were below regulated levels, suggesting soils are acting like a natural filtering system. Slag and ash (Cr = 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively) mixed into the soils enhanced metal contamination that otherwise were within background levels.
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = marcform)
electronic
Extent
xii, 114 p. : ill.
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
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text/xml
Note (type = degree)
Ph. D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 104-113)
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Sivajini Gilchrist
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Gilchrist
NamePart (type = given)
Sivajini
NamePart (type = date)
1956-
Role
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author
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Sivajini Gilchrist
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Gates
NamePart (type = given)
Alexander
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chair
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Advisory Committee
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Alexander E Gates
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Elzinga
NamePart (type = given)
Evert
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internal member
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Advisory Committee
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Evert Jan Elzinga
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Gorring
NamePart (type = given)
Matthew
Role
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outside member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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Matthew Gorring
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Szabo
NamePart (type = given)
Zoltan
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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Zoltan Szabo
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - Newark
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2010
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2010-01
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - Newark Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10002600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3P55NPR
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = GS); (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Notice
Note
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
Note
RightsHolder (ID = PRH-1); (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
GILCHRIST
GivenName
SIVAJINI
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent (ID = RE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
Permission or license
Label
Place
DateTime
2009-11-06 12:03:25
Detail
AssociatedEntity (ID = AE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Role
Copyright holder
Name
Sivajini Gilchrist
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - Newark
AssociatedObject (ID = AO-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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ETD
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application/pdf
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application/x-tar
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6789120
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