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Retardation of browning and softening of thermally processed pears packed in retortable pouches

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TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo (ID = T-1)
Title
Retardation of browning and softening of thermally processed pears packed in retortable pouches
Identifier
ETD_2812
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.1/rucore10001600001.ETD.000056575
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2); (type = code)
eng
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
Subject (ID = SBJ-1)
Name (authority = LC-NAF)
NamePart (type = corporate)
United States--Army--Commissariat
Subject (ID = SBJ-2); (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Food Science
Subject (ID = SBJ-3); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Pear--Preservation
Subject (ID = SBJ-4); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Food spoilage
Abstract (type = abstract)
Wet pack fruit rations have been included in the U.S. Army Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE) program menus since 1992, when they replaced freeze-dried fruits. These rations, designed for soldiers in the field, have high acceptability, are very convenient to carry (they are packed in flexible pouches), and provide important nutrients. The most common MRE wet pack fruit rations are pears, pineapples and mixed fruits in syrup, apple sauce, and apple pieces in spiced sauce. The required shelf life for MRE wet pack fruit rations is 36 months at 26.7ºC or 6 months at 37.7ºC. However many of these, especially pears in syrup, turn brown and mushy during storage before the required shelf life, and get rejected by the soldiers. Preliminar experiments had suggested that the oxygen left in the headspace of these pouches after vacuum packaging had a significant role in the browning, and that softening was due to canned Bartlett pears being used instead of fresh pears as starting material and being reprocessed into MRE rations. Therefore, our objective was to develop strategies to slow down the browning of MRE pears by reducing the available oxygen, and to find a year-long available fresh pear that could be used as starting material to avoid double processing. The MRE pear rations were made using canned Bartlett pears and fresh D’Anjou pears, which have a longer harvesting season and shelf life. Accelerated storage studies were carried out at 48.8ºC for 45 days as requested by the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, and samples were withdrawn periodically to measure headspace volume and composition, color, ascorbic acid concentration and hardness of the pears. Some of the samples produced were sent to the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center for sensory evaluation by a trained panel. The control formulation showed a significant consumption of oxygen in the headspace, degradation of ascorbic acid in the product during thermal processing and during storage, and formation of carbon dioxide during storage. Based on these findings we think that browning is mainly due to ascorbic acid degradation; other browning mechanisms were ruled out as the main cause for browning. Minimizing the residual headspace to almost zero by pulling vacuum for a longer time during packing and doing agitated retorting reduced ascorbic acid degradation by approximately 87% after thermal processing and decreased browning by approximately 34% after 30 days of storage. Oxygen scavenger films, a preferred solution from the manufacturer’s point of view since it wouldn’t increase production time, were also used to reduce the oxygen in the headspace, but the results were inconsistent. Using fresh D’Anjou pears instead of canned Bartlett pears was enough to increase the hardness of the MRE rations to acceptable levels according to the sensory analysis. The results from this study will allow the manufacturers of wet pack fruit MRE rations to improve the stability of their product without doing major capital investments or significantly increasing costs.
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
Extent
xi, 75 p. : ill.
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Note (type = degree)
M.S.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by José Antonio Maldonado Ugaz
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Maldonado Ugaz
NamePart (type = given)
José Antonio
NamePart (type = date)
1980-
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
DisplayForm
Jose Maldonado Ugaz
Name (ID = NAME-2); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Karwe
NamePart (type = given)
Mukund V.
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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Mukund V. Karwe
Name (ID = NAME-3); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
DAUN
NamePart (type = given)
HENRYK
Role
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internal member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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HENRYK DAUN
Name (ID = NAME-4); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Yam
NamePart (type = given)
Kit L.
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Kit L. Yam
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (ID = NAME-2); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2010
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2010-10
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3BP02J3
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD graduate
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = GS); (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
RightsHolder (ID = PRH-1); (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Maldonado Ugaz
GivenName
Jose
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent (ID = RE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
Permission or license
DateTime
2010-08-16 14:29:05
AssociatedEntity (ID = AE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Role
Copyright holder
Name
Jose Maldonado Ugaz
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
AssociatedObject (ID = AO-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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Technical

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ETD
MimeType (TYPE = file)
application/pdf
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application/x-tar
FileSize (UNIT = bytes)
2457600
Checksum (METHOD = SHA1)
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