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Characterization of the Dust/Smoke Aerosol that Settled East of the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan after the Collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001

Descriptive

Subject
Name (authority = LC-NAF)
NamePart (type = corporate)
World Trade Center (New York, N.Y.)
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Aerosols
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Inorganic compounds
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Smoke plumes
Subject
HierarchicalGeographic
Country
UNITED STATES
State
New York
City
New York (N.Y.)
Note (type = original version)
Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives
Note (type = funding)
Funded in part by supplemental funds from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to the NIEHS Centers at EOHSI (ES05022-12) and the NYU Institute of Medicine (ES00260). NYU is also funded in part by a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) PM Center Grant (R827351). P.J. Lioy was also supported in part by a U.S. EPA University Partnership (CR827033).
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.1/rucore30120600001.Manuscript.000063188
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3K072NC
TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo
Title
Characterization of the Dust/Smoke Aerosol that Settled East of the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan after the Collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007)
English
Abstract (type = abstract)
The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol plume impacting many workers, residents, and commuters during the first few days after 11 September 2001. Three bulk samples of the total settled dust and smoke were collected at weather-protected locations east of the WTC on 16 and 17 September 2001; these samples are representative of the generated material that settled immediately after the explosion and fire and the concurrent collapse of the two structures. We analyzed each sample, not differentiated by particle size, for inorganic and organic composition. In the inorganic analyses, we identified metals, radionuclides, ionic species, asbestos, and inorganic species. In the organic analyses, we identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, pesticides, phthalate esters, brominated diphenyl ethers, and other hydrocarbons. Each sample had a basic pH. Asbestos levels ranged from 0.8% to 3.0% of the mass, the PAHs were > 0.1% of the mass, and lead ranged from 101 to 625 µg/g. The content and distribution of material was indicative of a complex mixture of building debris and combustion products in the resulting plume. These three samples were composed primarily of construction materials, soot, paint (leaded and unleaded), and glass fibers (mineral wool and fiberglass). Levels of hydrocarbons indicated unburned or partially burned jet fuel, plastic, cellulose, and other materials that were ignited by the fire. In morphologic analyses we found that a majority of the mass was fibrous and composed of many types of fibers (e.g., mineral wool, fiberglass, asbestos, wood, paper, and cotton). The particles were separated into size classifications by gravimetric and aerodynamic methods. Material < 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter was 0.88-1.98% of the total mass. The largest mass concentrations were > 53 µm in diameter. The results obtained from these samples can be used to understand the contact and types of exposures to this unprecedented complex mixture experienced by the surviving residents, commuters, and rescue workers directly affected by the plume from 11 to 12 September and the evaluations of any acute or long-term health effects from resuspendable dust and smoke to the residents, commuters, and local workers, as well as from the materials released after 11 September until the fires were extinguished. Further, these results support the need to have the interior of residences, buildings, and their respective HVAC systems professionally cleaned to reduce long-term residential risks before rehabitation.
PhysicalDescription
Extent
12 p.
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Lioy
NamePart (type = given)
Paul J.
Affiliation
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Weisel
NamePart (type = given)
Clifford P.
Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Millette
NamePart (type = given)
James R.
Affiliation
MVA Scientific Consultants
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Eisenreich
NamePart (type = given)
Steven
Affiliation
Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Vallero
NamePart (type = given)
Daniel
Affiliation
National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Offenberg
NamePart (type = given)
John
Affiliation
Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Turpin
NamePart (type = given)
Barbara
Affiliation
Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Porcja
NamePart (type = given)
Robert
Affiliation
Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrt); (type = text)
author
Extension
DescriptiveEvent
Type
Grant award
AssociatedEntity
Role
Funder
Name
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
AssociatedObject
Type
Grant number
Name
ES05022-12
Detail
Funded by supplemental funds from the NIEHS to the NIEHS Centers at EOHSI
AssociatedObject
Type
Grant number
Name
ES00260
Detail
Funded by supplemental funds from the NIEHS to the NYU Institute of Medicine
Extension
DescriptiveEvent
Type
Grant award
AssociatedEntity
Role
Funder
Name
United States. Environmental Protection Agency
AssociatedObject
Type
Grant number
Name
R827351
Detail
NYU funded in part by a U.S. EPA PM Center Grant
AssociatedObject
Type
Grant number
Name
CR827033
Detail
P.J. Lioy supported in part by a U.S. EPA University Partnership
Extension
DescriptiveEvent
Type
Citation
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf)
2002
AssociatedObject
Type
Journal
Relationship
Has part
Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
Identifier (type = volume and issue)
110(7)
Reference (type = digital)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.02110703
Detail
703-714
OriginInfo
DateIssued (encoding = w3cdtf); (keyDate = yes); (point = start); (qualifier = exact)
2002
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Turpin, Barbara
Identifier (type = local)
rucore30120600001
RelatedItem (type = other version)
TitleInfo
Title
Environmental Health Perspectives
Identifier (type = uri)
doi:10.1289/ehp.02110703
Genre (authority = RULIB-FS)
Articles, Refereed
Genre (authority = NISO JAV)
Version of Record (VoR)
Name (authority = RutgersOrg-Department); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Environmental Sciences
Name (authority = RutgersOrg-School); (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Environmental and Biological Sciences (SEBS)
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = FS); (ID = rulibRdec0004)
Copyright for scholarly resources published in RUcore is retained by the copyright holder. By virtue of its appearance in this open access medium, you are free to use this resource, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings. Other uses, such as reproduction or republication, may require the permission of the copyright holder.
Copyright
Status
Public domain
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
US federal document
Publication
Status
Published
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Technical

ContentModel
Manuscript
MimeType (TYPE = file)
application/pdf
MimeType (TYPE = container)
application/x-tar
FileSize (UNIT = bytes)
1699840
Checksum (METHOD = SHA1)
7dd13a139d41b58f08ffcc73a130a33226a9bd80
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