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Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction of a Pleistocene catena using paleopedology and geochemistry of lake margin paleo-Vertisols, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

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TitleInfo
Title
Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction of a Pleistocene catena using paleopedology and geochemistry of lake margin paleo-Vertisols, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Beverly
NamePart (type = given)
Emily Jane
NamePart (type = date)
1986-
DisplayForm
Emily Beverly
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Ashley
NamePart (type = given)
Gail M.
DisplayForm
Gail M. Ashley
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Feibel
NamePart (type = given)
Craig S.
DisplayForm
Craig S. Feibel
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Driese
NamePart (type = given)
Steven G.
DisplayForm
Steven G. Driese
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2012
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2012-01
CopyrightDate (qualifier = exact)
2012
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (3°S) contains a rich record of Pleistocene paleoclimates and paleoenvironments, as well as an abundance of paleontological and archaeological data. The 2.2 Ma of volcaniclastic infill can be divided into time-slices using dated tuffs. Until ~1.75 Ma the sediments were deposited in a semi-arid, closed rift basin that contained a shallow saline-alkaline lake that fluctuated periodically with climate, depositing sediment on the lake margin. Four trenches that range in thickness from 2 to 2.5 m in a ~1 km transect of the lake margin flat were described and sampled. This ~20 ka time-slice between Ng’eju Tuff and Tuff IF (~1.785 Ma) contains both stacked and cumulative paleosols that are interpreted as a heterogeneous paleocatena. Closer to the lake, these paleosols are thinner, vertically stacked, and separated by thin tuffs or tufa. Further from the lake margin, there is additional volcaniclastic input, and the paleosols are thicker and cumulative. Macroscale and micromorphological features identify these clay-rich paleosols as paleo-Vertisols. Abundant pedogenic slickensides and a variety of ped shapes were observed in the field as well as micro-ped structures and stress cutans in thin section. Although weakly developed, these paleo-Vertisols also have distinct horizons defined by soil color changes, differing ped shapes, and bulk geochemistry. Eighty samples from the paleosols and parent materials were analyzed for bulk geochemistry of major, rare, and trace elements. Geochemical proxies reveal a climosequence not definitively identifiable in the field or in the micromorphology. Molecular weathering ratios show increased weathering, and mass-balance calculations indicate greater translocations (positive and negative) through time. It is likely that lower soil moisture due to a drier climate created better-drained conditions allowing for increased pedogenesis. Mg oxides and zeolites precipitating in rhizoliths are further evidence for changing redox conditions and water chemistry, likely due to increased aridity. The drying trend in this climosequence is consistent with faunal, stable isotope, and lithostratigraphic records within Olduvai Gorge and with marine dust records from northern Africa. The paleocatena identified within this time-slice also provides additional paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic data, coinciding with the first hominin migrations out of Africa at ~1.8 Ma.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Geological Sciences
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Paleoclimatology--Pleistocene
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Paleoecology—Pleistocene
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Paleogeography—Pleistocene
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Sediments (Geology)--Tanzania--Olduvai Gorge
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_3712
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
xi, 104 p. : ill., maps
Note (type = degree)
M.S.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = vita)
Includes vita
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Emily Jane Beverly
Subject (authority = lcsh/lcnaf)
Geographic
Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)--Antiquities
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.1/rucore10001600001.ETD.000063988
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3C53JWN
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD graduate
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Beverly
GivenName
Emily
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2011-11-29 13:15:04
AssociatedEntity
Name
Emily Beverly
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
AssociatedObject
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2012-01-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2013-01-30
Type
Embargo
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after January 30th, 2013.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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