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Nicotiana sylvestris, a model plant for cell biology

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TitleInfo
Title
Nicotiana sylvestris, a model plant for cell biology
SubTitle
organelle movement and retrotransposon mutagenesis
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Thyssen
NamePart (type = given)
Gregory N.
DisplayForm
Gregory Thyssen
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Maliga
NamePart (type = given)
Pal
DisplayForm
Pal Maliga
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Dooner
NamePart (type = given)
Hugo K
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Hugo K Dooner
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Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Messing
NamePart (type = given)
Joachim
DisplayForm
Joachim Messing
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Nickels
NamePart (type = given)
Bryce
DisplayForm
Bryce Nickels
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2012
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2012-05
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
Nicotiana sylvestris is a diploid tobacco plant that is amenable to laboratory manipulation including facile transformation of nuclear and plastid (chloroplast) genomes. In three separate studies, I used this model organism to observe biological processes with evolutionary and biotechnological implications. The first addresses the mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer by demonstrating cell-to-cell movement of plastids. We grafted Nicotiana sylvestris plants with selectable transgenic plastid genomes to Nicotiana tabacum plants with selectable transgenic nuclear markers. Grafting triggers formation of new cell-tocell contacts, creating an opportunity for organelle movement between the plant cells. I present evidence for cell-to-cell movement of the entire 161-kb plastid genome in these plants, most likely in intact plastids. Acquisition of plastids from neighboring cells provides a mechanism by which cells may be repopulated with functioning organelles. My second objective was to determine whether exceptional pollen transmissionof plastids is accompanied by paternal mitochondria transmission in Nicotiana sylvestris. Plastids and mitochondria in Nicotiana are normally both inherited from the maternal parent. We observed that plastids from the N. sylvestris father were transmitted at a low (~0.002%) frequency via pollen. The plants that inherited paternal plastids did not carry paternal mitochondrial DNA, indicating that leakage of plastids via pollen can produce plant lines with unrelated plastids and mitochondria. My third objective was to observe the behavior of an individual high-copy retrotransposon in N. sylvestris, its native host. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are major components of the nuclear genomes of plants, animals and fungi. The “copy-and-paste” life cycle of retrotransposons accounts for their accumulation in host genomes and permits the assumption that LTRs are identical at the time of insertion. Our objective was to experimentally determine if an introduced synthetic element would interact with native high-copy elements during retrotransposition. I present evidence that S-TNT1 co-packaged with native TNT1 elements to produce hybrid insertions with swapped LTRs and multiple recombinations within the gag-pol gene. We can best explain our observations by dimerization and co-packaging of TNT1 gRNAs in the cytoplasm, followed by template-switching during minus-strand DNA synthesis, which we term the “mixand- paste” pseudodiploid mating system for LTR-retroelements.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Plant Biology
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_3974
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
vii, 83 p. : ill.
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = vita)
Includes vita
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Gregory N. Thyssen
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Tobacco--Composition
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Botany--Experiments
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Plant genomes
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.1/rucore10001600001.ETD.000065276
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T33F4NKH
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Thyssen
GivenName
Gregory
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2012-04-15 23:20:55
AssociatedEntity
Name
Gregory Thyssen
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
AssociatedObject
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2012-05-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2014-05-31
Type
Embargo
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after May 31st, 2014.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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