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What it Means to be a Loser: Non-optimal Candidates in Optimality Theory

Descriptive

Genre (authority = marcgt)
thesis
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2); (type = code)
eng
PhysicalDescription
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
Extent
508 p.
TypeOfResource
Text
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
TitleInfo
Title
What it Means to be a Loser: Non-optimal Candidates in Optimality Theory
Identifier (type = ROA)
687
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Linguistics
Subject (authority = optimality_area)
Topic
Phonology
Subject (authority = optimality_area)
Topic
Formal analysis
Subject (authority = optimality_area)
Topic
Psycholinguistics
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
variation
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
processing
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
EVAL
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
lexical decision
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
wordlikeness
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
vowel deletion
Abstract (type = abstract)
In this dissertation I propose a rank-ordering model of EVAL. This model differs from classic OT as follows: In classic OT, EVAL distinguishes the best candidate from the losers, but does not distinguish between different losers. I argue that EVAL imposes a harmonic rank-ordering on the complete candidate set, so that also the losers are ordered relative to each other. I show how this model of EVAL can account for non-categorical phenomena such as variation and phonological processing. Variation. In variation there is more than one pronunciation for a single input. Grammar determines the possible variants and the relative frequency of the variants. I argue that EVAL imposes a harmonic rank-ordering on the entire candidate set, and that language users can access more than the best candidate from this rank-ordering. However, the accessibility of a candidate depends on its position in the rank-ordering. The higher a candidate appears, the more often it will be selected as output. The best candidate is then the most frequent variant, the second best candidate the second most frequent variant, etc. I apply this model to vowel deletion in Latvian and Portuguese, and to [t, d]-deletion in English.Phonological processing. Language users rely on grammar in word-likeness judgments and lexical decision tasks. The more well-formed a non-word, the more word like language users will judge it to be. A more well-formed a non-word is considered more seriously as a possible word, and language users will be slower to reject it in a lexical decision task. The rank-ordering model of EVAL accounts for this as follows: EVAL compares non-words and imposes a rank-ordering on them. The higher a non-word occurs in this rank-ordering, the more well-formed it is. Therefore, the higher a non-word occurs, the more word-like it will be judged to be, and the more slowly it will be rejected in lexical decision tasks. I illustrate this by discussing two sets of experiments on how grammar influences phonological processing. The first set investigates the influence of the OCP on processing in Hebrew, and the second the influence of a constraint on [sCvC]-words in English.
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Coetzee
NamePart (type = given)
Andries W.
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrelator); (type = text)
Author
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (keyDate = yes); (qualifier = exact)
2004-09
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
University of massachussets Amherst
Role
RoleTerm (authority = marcrelator); (type = text)
Degree grantor
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Grammar, Comparative and general--Vowel reduction
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Language and languages--Variation
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Optimality Theory (Linguistics)
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.1/rucore00000002165.ETD.000064893
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers Optimality Archive
Identifier (type = local)
rucore00000002165
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3BZ64XW
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = GS); (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Coetzee
GivenName
Andries W.
Role
Copyright holder
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Technical

ContentModel
ETD
MimeType (TYPE = file)
application/pdf
MimeType (TYPE = container)
application/x-tar
FileSize (UNIT = bytes)
2641920
Checksum (METHOD = SHA1)
82f6716547b92055f493a237ec9ce971b0705ef6
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