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Proximal factors driving the local dynamics of West Nile virus transmission

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TitleInfo
Title
Proximal factors driving the local dynamics of West Nile virus transmission
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Johnson
NamePart (type = given)
Brian J.
NamePart (type = date)
1985-
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Brian J. Johnson
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RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
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Fonseca
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Dina M
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Dina M Fonseca
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Advisory Committee
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chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Lockwood
NamePart (type = given)
Julie L
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Julie L Lockwood
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Advisory Committee
Role
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Robson
NamePart (type = given)
Mark G
DisplayForm
Mark G Robson
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Kramer
NamePart (type = given)
Laura D
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Laura D Kramer
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2015
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2015-01
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2015
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
Understanding the primary factors driving the transmission dynamics of West Nile virus (WNV) is essential to predicting and controlling disease risk to wildlife and to humans. In Chapter 1, I found that seasonal drought conditions, associated with specific thresholds of temperature and precipitation, correspond to epizootic levels of transmission. As a follow up, in Chapter 2, I examined the effects of drought-induced egg retention on the reproductive potential of female Culex pipiens. I found that, consistent with an “all-or-none” ovipositing strategy, female Cx. pipiens are able to maintain a high degree of reproductive potential during prolonged drought events. In Chapter 3, since identification limitations have long confounded the roles of native and exotic Culex species in WNV transmission, I used a cost-effective DNA-based assay to identify field-collected specimens. Contrary to expectations, I found the native species, Cx. restuans, to be more abundant and more frequently infected than Cx. pipiens, an exotic species, in both natural and urban habitats. Importantly, I found that Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens appear to be acting synergistically resulting in high WNV transmission. Lastly, in Chapter 4, in order to rectify the lack of insecticide resistance (IR) studies in local Culex, I examined the occurrence of IR alleles in New Jersey Cx. pipiens. I found two widespread organophosphate resistant alleles, EsterB1 and Ester2, and the classical knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation (L1014F) conferring resistance to pyrethroids. Importantly, I detected double mutants at the kdr and Ester loci, a condition that may accelerate IR. Taken together, my studies reveal that disease risk for WNV is exacerbated by high temperature/low humidity conditions. I elucidated this paradoxical result by showing that female Cx. pipiens can retain their eggs until they find remnant water filled containers, which during drought become concentrated near humans. Further, I elucidated the important role of the native Cx. restuans in the transmission of WNV and the ways that native and exotic species may act synergistically to maximize transmission. Similarly, my baseline analysis of IR in Cx. pipiens indicates the presence of multiple resistance alleles in single individuals that may drive the spread of resistance.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Ecology and Evolution
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_6030
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (x, 105 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
West Nile virus
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Communicable diseases--Transmission
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Culex pipiens
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Brian J. Johnson
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3DJ5HCC
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Johnson
GivenName
Brian
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2014-11-24 19:16:56
AssociatedEntity
Name
Brian Johnson
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
AssociatedObject
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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ETD
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windows xp
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