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Enrichment and identification of ammonia tolerant microorganisms in different anaerobic waste treatment systems

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Title
Enrichment and identification of ammonia tolerant microorganisms in different anaerobic waste treatment systems
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Rattana
NamePart (type = given)
Sunirat
NamePart (type = date)
1974-
DisplayForm
Sunirat Rattana
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Fennell
NamePart (type = given)
Donna E
DisplayForm
Donna E Fennell
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2016
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2016-01
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2016
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
During anaerobic digestion (AD) of high-nitrogen wastes, organically bound nitrogen is released as ammonia. If ammonia concentrations are too high, ammonia toxicity may occur and contribute to reactor failure. To avoid ammonia toxicity, operators often blend low and high nitrogen wastes to achieve lower ammonia concentrations. However, if better AD performance and process stability can be achieved when ammonia is high, then feedstock blending would be unnecessary and the ammonia released could be harvested at high concentrations as a fertilizer or energy source. The goal of the research described in this dissertation was to enrich and identify ammonia tolerant microorganisms from different anaerobic waste treatment systems including: landfill leachate obtained from a bioreactor landfill in New Jersey and a traditional landfill in Thailand; an anaerobic digester treating swine waste; and a municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge digester. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations of up to 12.5 g TAN/L were imposed on reactors inoculated from the different treatment systems and were fed glutamate as a model nitrogen-containing substrate. A longer start-up phase, decreased methane production, and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generally occurred at high TAN concentrations. Microbial community shifts were evident and were related to different TAN concentrations, fluctuations in VFA concentrations, and methane production. The Thailand reactors appeared to have the greatest intrinsic ammonia resistance. Compared to the other inocula, little reactor instability was observed in Thailand leachate enrichments, even at the highest TAN concentrations. In constrast, the municipal anaerobic digester sludge had no instrinsic capacity to adapt to ammonia stress. Divalent cation effects (Ca2+ and Mg2+) to counteract ammonia toxicity were also investigated in the swine waste digestate reactors. The presence of counter ions was related to enhanced tolerance by certain microbial strains to ammonia. Microbial community analysis of 16S rRNA genes using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454 pyrosequencing, revealed that phylotypes related to Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans, an anaerobic, syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacterium, in the phylum Firmicutes was dominant in reactors inoculated with landfill leachate (both Thailand and New Jersey) and swine waste digestate (including Ca2+-amended reactors). In contrast, phylotypes matching Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovoran, a moderately thermophilic, syntrophic, glutamate-degrading bacterium, was detected at low TAN concentrations, mainly in reactors inoculated with wastewater sludge digestate. Archaeal community analysis revealed that phylotypes matching Methanosarcina spp. in the phylum Euryarchaeota were dominant in reactors inoculated with Thailand landfill leachate, swine waste digestate (target 0.5 to 5 g TAN/L) and swine waste digestate with divalent cation addition—all of which exhibited relatively stable operation. The presence of Methanosarcina spp. at higher TAN concentrations thus suggested that its presence may impart reactor resistance at high TAN concentrations. In contrast, reactors from New Jersey landfill leachate, second generation reactors from swine waste digestate (target 5 to 12.5 g TAN/L), and reactors from the municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge digester had phylotypes matching Methanoculleus spp. as the dominant methanogens. These reactors generally excibited greater reactor instability as indicated by VFA accumulation and decreased methane production. Overall, this study provides important information about ammonia tolerant microorganisms from different anaerobic waste treatment systems. Different systems had very different capacities for adapting to ammonia stress. Knowledge of inoculum sources containing ammonia-tolerant microbial communities could aid in developing bioaugmentation strategies for more rapid adaptation of AD systems treating high nitrogen wastes.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Environmental Sciences
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_6985
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (xviii, 213 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Refuse and refuse disposal--New Jersey
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Sewage--Purification--Anaerobic treatment
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Sunirat Rattana
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3KP8473
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Rattana
GivenName
Sunirat
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2016-01-09 03:02:17
AssociatedEntity
Name
Sunirat Rattana
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
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License
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Author Agreement License
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2016-01-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2017-01-30
Type
Embargo
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after January 30th, 2017.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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ETD
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windows xp
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