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Coinfection of Schistosoma species with Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Viruses

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TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo
Title
Coinfection of Schistosoma species with Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Viruses
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Abruzzi
NamePart (type = given)
Amy
Affiliation
Dean's Office (Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy), Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (type = text); (authority = marcrt)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Fried
NamePart (type = given)
Bernard
Role
RoleTerm (type = text); (authority = marcrt)
author
Affiliation
Lafayette College
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Alikhan
NamePart (type = given)
Sukaina B.
Role
RoleTerm (type = text); (authority = marcrt)
author
Affiliation
U.S. Fund for UNICEF
Name (type = corporate); (authority = RutgersOrg-Department)
NamePart
Dean's Office (Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy)
Name (type = corporate); (authority = RutgersOrg-School)
NamePart
Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy
Genre (authority = RULIB-FS)
Article, Refereed
Genre (authority = NISO JAV)
Accepted Manuscript (AM)
OriginInfo
DateIssued (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (keyDate = yes)
2016
Abstract (type = Abstract)
Although a considerable number of studies have been undertaken to date, it is still controversial as to whether or not coinfection with schistosomiasis increases the susceptibility to or progression from HBV or HCV infection. This review is a closer examination of the key studies conducted on human populations on clinical factors that were published in English between 1975 to January 2015. Our review is mainly based on tables containing the salient information, which are arranged first by study population, country of study, and publication date. We provide further explanation, clarification and discussion in the text. As such, it includes both studies that have been conducted on general populations who are largely asymptomatic for clinical disease (Table 1.2.1), as well as those focusing on special populations, which are usually comprised of clinical patients. These special populations have been presented as follow: subjects with chronic liver disease or related conditions such as cirrhosis, Table 1.3.1; subjects with primary liver cancer, Table 1.3.2; subjects with schistosomiasis, Table 1.3.3; subjects with acute or chronic hepatitis resulting from Hepatitis B virus, Table 1.3.4; and, subjects with Hepatitis C virus, Table 1.3.5. We have presented studies that compared two mono-infected groups with one that is coinfected separately in Table 1.4, as these offer us the best basis from which to evaluate if any synergistic effects accompany coinfection.

A number of factors contributed to the results reported in our tables. These included, but are not limited to: subject selection (i.e., asymptomatic cases typically drawn from the general population vs. subjects presenting to a hospital or clinic with clinical disease); study design, which directly impacts our ability to infer causality (i.e., case series, cross-sectional, case control, cohort study); use and choice of control population (i.e., apparently healthy subjects vs. other hospital patients vs. none); sample size, which directly impacts statistical power and can result in a Type II error; geographic area, which may reflect differences in population genetics, public health history, environmental differences or any number of other important factors (i.e., Egypt, Brazil, China); method of testing for schistosomal infections (i.e., stool vs. antibody test); method of testing to determine if advanced schistosomal disease was present (i.e., ultrasound, liver biopsy vs. none); method of serological testing for HBV (i.e., use of HBsAg alone or with other markers or DNA testing); method of serological testing for HCV (i.e., use of anti-HCV alone or with RNA testing); and, year of the study, which reflects among other things, technological improvements between tests as well as possible changes in the frequency of exposure in the populations under study (i.e., use of parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy vs. the oral anti-schistosomal medication).

Despite all these differences, throughout this review we have observed general patterns that seem largely consistent with one another. Studies conducted on general, largely asymptomatic populations tend to support the view that having one of the diseases in question (i.e., schistosomiasis does not necessarily predispose one to becoming coinfected with another (i.e., HBV or HCV). Rather, the probability of becoming coinfected seems most closely associated with modes of transmission for either HBV or HCV in schistosome-endemic areas, such as the past use of parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy or frequent blood transfusion. Once coinfected, however, the clinical course of illness for those with Schistosoma-HBV or Schistosoma-HCV infections are typically much more severe than for mono-infected subjects. The strongest evidence for this was found in the half-dozen or so prospective cohort studies that systematically monitored disease progression in their subjects. With respect to HBV infection, coinfection with Schistosoma prolonged the carriage state and more often resulted in chronic hepatitis with greater cirrhosis as well as higher mortality. Much of the same was also observed with respect to HCV, where coinfection with Schistosoma was associated with a reduced ability to spontaneously resolve the viral infection and more often resulted in rapid fibrosis as well as higher mortality. Furthermore, two of these studies which were fully comparative in nature, support the supposition that there is a synergistic association between Schistosoma-HCV for both liver fibrosis and mortality. Immunological studies, all conducted on HCV, also generally seem to support this.

The results of our research argue for greater primary prevention for both HBV and HCV in Schistosoma-endemic populations. Although no vaccine currently exists for HCV as it does for HBV, additional steps can still be taken to reduce transmission in high risk populations. Greater use of the HBV vaccine is particularly advisable. Finally, additional observational, longitudinal studies conducted on human populations that are fully comparative in nature could help answer some of the remaining questions on both Schistosoma-HBV as well as Schistosoma-HCV coinfections. Some of these include the role of active vs. past schistosomal infections, the role of genetic variants, as well as the effect of coinfection on treatment. Future studies should make a particular effort to use a sufficient sample size to ensure adequate statistical power, which was not often properly considered in many of the studies we reviewed for this paper.
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007); (type = text)
English
PhysicalDescription
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
Extent
44 p.
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Schistosomiasis
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Hepatitis B virus
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Hepatitis C virus
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
Coinfection
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
Disease progression
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
Chronic hepatitis
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Liver--Diseases
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Schistosoma japonicum
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Schistosoma haematobium
Extension
DescriptiveEvent
Type
Citation
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf)
2016
AssociatedObject
Name
Advances in Parasitology
Type
Journal
Relationship
Has part
Detail
111-231
Identifier (type = volume and issue)
91,
Reference (type = url)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2015.12.003
Note (type = peerReview)
Peer reviewed
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Abruzzi, Amy
Identifier (type = local)
rucore30203600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T31C200Z
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Copyright for scholarly resources published in RUcore is retained by the copyright holder. By virtue of its appearance in this open access medium, you are free to use this resource, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings. Other uses, such as reproduction or republication, may require the permission of the copyright holder.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
AssociatedObject
Type
License
Name
Multiple author license v. 1
Detail
I hereby grant to Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (Rutgers) the non-exclusive right to retain, reproduce, and distribute the deposited work (Work) in whole or in part, in and from its electronic format, without fee. This agreement does not represent a transfer of copyright to Rutgers.Rutgers may make and keep more than one copy of the Work for purposes of security, backup, preservation, and access and may migrate the Work to any medium or format for the purpose of preservation and access in the future. Rutgers will not make any alteration, other than as allowed by this agreement, to the Work.I represent and warrant to Rutgers that the Work is my original work. I also represent that the Work does not, to the best of my knowledge, infringe or violate any rights of others.I further represent and warrant that I have obtained all necessary rights to permit Rutgers to reproduce and distribute the Work and that any third-party owned content is clearly identified and acknowledged within the Work.By granting this license, I acknowledge that I have read and agreed to the terms of this agreement and all related RUcore and Rutgers policies.
RightsEvent
Type
Publication notice
Detail
© 2016. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
RightsEvent
Type
Embargo
DateTime (point = start); (encoding = w3cdtf)
2016-05-11
DateTime (point = end); (encoding = w3cdtf)
2017-02-05
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted due to the policy of the publisher, Elsevier, which requires a 12 month embargo from the date the article was published. The article in this repository will be publicly available after February 5, 2017.
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