Staff View
Sweeteners, sweet antagonists, and metabolism

Descriptive

TitleInfo
Title
Sweeteners, sweet antagonists, and metabolism
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Kochem
NamePart (type = given)
Matthew C.
DisplayForm
Matthew C. Kochem
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Breslin
NamePart (type = given)
Paul A
DisplayForm
Paul A Breslin
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Anthony
NamePart (type = given)
Tracy G
DisplayForm
Tracy G Anthony
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Miller
NamePart (type = given)
Joshua W
DisplayForm
Joshua W Miller
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Margolskee
NamePart (type = given)
Robert F
DisplayForm
Robert F Margolskee
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2017
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2017-01
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2017
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
Sugars and sweeteners are proposed to stimulate human sweet taste via the receptor, T1R2-T1R3. T1R2-T1R3 is a heterodimeric GPCR expressed in oral taste tissue. T1R2-T1R3 binds sugars, non-nutritive sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. It was recently discovered that T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in extra-oral tissues including the intestine, hypothalamus, pancreas, and adipose. This finding is striking because non-nutritive sweeteners are believed to be metabolically inert. Hence, it raises the question of whether T1R2-T1R3 plays a role not only sweet taste perception but also in regulatory and metabolic physiology. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the perceptual and physiological functions of T1R2-T1R3 using a pharmacological approach in human participants. In the first aim, I determined whether glucose and fructose behave as partial agonists of the sweet taste receptor and can enhance or suppress each other in mixture. In the second aim, I sought to assess and improve the sweetness of glucose and its metabolic profile relative to fructose and sucrose. In the third aim, I conducted psychophysical studies to determine whether metabolically active drugs act on the sweet taste receptor. In the fourth aim, I conducted glucose tolerance studies to determine whether sweet taste stimuli influence glucose metabolism. And in the fifth aim, I conducted glucose tolerance tests to determine whether sweet taste inhibitors influence glucose metabolism. I found that sweeteners and antagonists had both perceptual and physiological functions. In the first aim, I demonstrated that glucose is a poor sweetener relative to fructose because it is not a full agonist of the sweet receptor. In the second aim, I demonstrated that glucose can be rendered almost indistinguishable from sucrose at the same caloric level with the addition of a non-nutritive sweetener. Thus, the difference in glucose and fructose sweetness can be overcome when adding stevioside to glucose. In the third aim, I demonstrated that clofibric acid, a lipid lowering prescription drug, inhibits sweet taste perception. Since it has been shown to inhibit T1R3 in vitro, I conclude from our data that it is also a T1R3 inhibitor in vivo. In the fourth aim, I demonstrated that high potency sweeteners (HPS), which are thought to be metabolically inert, enhance insulin and glucose responses relative to a standard OGTT. And in the fifth aim, I found that sweet taste blockers caused an opposite reaction and slowed glucose rise in the blood relative to a standard OGTT. As a sugar receptor, T1R2-T1R3 imparts a powerful influence on human health by guiding food choice and metabolism. My findings are of public health relevance because excessive intake of sweet tasting compounds such as sugars and other sweeteners are a major long-term health concern. Overconsumption of dietary sugars, particularly in the form of sweetened beverages, is thought to promote obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease, and metabolic syndrome. Despite efforts to curb intake of sweet beverages, the typical American consumes 50 liters of caloric and non-caloric soft drinks per year and even more in sugar-added foods and confections. As the prevalence of metabolic diseases grows, there is a greater need to understand the perceptual and physiological mechanisms, drives, and responses for sweet tasting compounds.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Nutritional Sciences
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Nutrition
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Sweeteners
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_6208
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (x, 111 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Matthew C. Kochem
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T39Z97BB
Back to the top

Rights

RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Kochem
GivenName
Matthew
MiddleName
C.
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2016-11-07 17:31:51
AssociatedEntity
Name
Matthew Kochem
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
AssociatedObject
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2017-01-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2019-01-31
Type
Embargo
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after January 31st, 2019.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
Back to the top

Technical

RULTechMD (ID = TECHNICAL1)
ContentModel
ETD
OperatingSystem (VERSION = 5.1)
windows xp
CreatingApplication
Version
1.4
ApplicationName
Acrobat Distiller 9.5.5 (Windows)
DateCreated (point = start); (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2016-11-09T12:06:23
DateCreated (point = start); (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2016-11-09T12:06:23
Back to the top
Version 8.3.5
Rutgers University Libraries - Copyright ©2018