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The metabolic effects of linoleic acid versus saturated fat in male mice, female mice, and offspring exposed maternally

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Title
The metabolic effects of linoleic acid versus saturated fat in male mice, female mice, and offspring exposed maternally
Name (type = personal)
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Mamounis
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Kyle J.
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1984-
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Kyle J. Mamounis
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author
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Roepke
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Troy A
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Troy A Roepke
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Advisory Committee
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chair
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Bello
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Nicholas T
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Nicholas T Bello
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Campbell
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Sara C
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Sara C Campbell
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Storch
NamePart (type = given)
Judith
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Judith Storch
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Cai
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Dongsheng
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Dongsheng Cai
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Advisory Committee
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outside member
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Rutgers University
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degree grantor
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Graduate School - New Brunswick
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school
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theses
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DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2017
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2017-05
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2017
Place
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xx
Language
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eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
The obesity epidemic is receiving research attention, but that attention may be targeted incorrectly. The biggest change in American diet during the 20th century was a replacement of saturated and monounsaturated fats with linoleic acid in the form of industrial seed oils. In order to determine whether fatty acid profile is important for producing obesity I fed wild-type C57BL6/J mice high-fat diets with either high concentrations of saturated fat or linoleic acid. In addition to body weight, I performed metabolic assays and collected hypothalamic tissue for measuring gene expression, targeting the mechanism of hypothalamic inflammation. These experimental diets were fed to in males, ovariectomized females with and without estrogen treatment, and to breeder dams to expose their offspring prenatally. I found that in males, linoleic acid contributed to a small but significant increase in body weight compared to saturated fat, but that all high-fat diets produced obese mice. The biggest difference between groups was insulin resistance in the linoleic acid-fed mice. Gene expression evidence of hypothalamic inflammation was unclear. In female mice, estrogen conferred protection from obesity caused by all experimental high-fat diets. Without estrogen, female mice were equally obese from saturated fat and linoleic acid. Glucose metabolism, however, was also impaired by linoleic acid, and expression of hypothalamic genes for metabolism and inflammation were highly variable. In offspring exposed to maternal high-fat diet, females were again protected but not males. Male mice weaned onto a high-fat diet gained more weight when exposed to linoleic acid through maternal feeding than saturated fat. A similar effect on glucose metabolism was seen in male and female offspring as in the first two experiments, where linoleic acid feeding impaired glucose clearance during glucose or insulin challenge. My conclusion is that, in the mouse, linoleic acid is slightly more obesogenic than saturated fat, but effects glucose metabolism much more potently. The effects on obesity, but not glycemia, are partially protected in female mice by estrogen. Due to a lack of clear hypothalamic inflammation biomarkers, these effects are likely occurring in the periphery.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Nutritional Sciences
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Linoleic acid
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Obesity
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
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ETD_7885
PhysicalDescription
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electronic resource
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (vii, 284 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Kyle J. Mamounis
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TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3W098TN
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Mamounis
GivenName
Kyle
MiddleName
J.
Role
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RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2017-02-10 19:30:09
AssociatedEntity
Name
Kyle Mamounis
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
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License
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Author Agreement License
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Copyright
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Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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2017-02-17T19:01:21
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2017-02-17T19:01:21
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