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Assessing Greenland Ice Sheet meltwater losses at the pixel and drainage basin scale

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TitleInfo
Title
Assessing Greenland Ice Sheet meltwater losses at the pixel and drainage basin scale
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Moustafa
NamePart (type = given)
Samiah
NamePart (type = date)
1989-
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Samiah Moustafa
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RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
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Rennermalm
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Asa
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Asa Rennermalm
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Advisory Committee
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chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Robinson
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David
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David Robinson
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Advisory Committee
Role
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Lathrop
NamePart (type = given)
Richard
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Richard Lathrop
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Koenig
NamePart (type = given)
Lora
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Lora Koenig
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2017
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2017-05
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2017
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
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eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is expected to increase its contributions to sea level rise with atmospheric warming, and it is important to accurately predict future sea level change. Surface meltwater runoff losses, modulated by surface albedo, are two dominant uncertainties in future GrIS sea level rise estimates. The first component of this study characterizes surface albedo in the lower ablation zone, a key variable controlling the surface energy and mass balance of the GrIS, and an important parameter in regional climate models (RCMs). This analysis is expanded in a second study to evaluate satellite albedo retrievals and assess its ability to resolve sub-pixel spatial variability of ablation area albedo. In situ spectral albedo data collected along a transect, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily albedo product, and high spatial resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2) data are utilized in these two studies. The results show that the distribution of dominant ice surface types (e.g., snow, bare ice, light-absorbing impurities, and streams) act as an additional mechanism for controlling ablation zone albedos. This can significantly impact seasonal and inter-annual changes in ablation zone albedo, and subsequent melt. These findings have important implications for current RCMs, which don’t fully integrate a seasonally evolving ice surface type’s albedo scheme. The second study demonstrates over spatially heterogeneous surfaces, such as in the ablation zone, that a multiple ‘point-to-pixel’ comparison, utilizing multiple ground albedo observations coinciding with a satellite pixel, is superior to the frequently used single ‘point-to-pixel’ comparison. This points to the significance of evaluating the spatial representativeness of ground albedo sites (e.g., automatic weather stations) prior to validation of satellite or model-derived albedos. The second component of this study quantifies meltwater runoff losses, a dominant, yet understudied term of GrIS mass loss, at the drainage-basin scale. To do this, the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM discharge estimates are compared with proglacial river discharge observations at three drainage basins – Thule, Watson, and Nuuk – located north-to-south in west Greenland. I find that MAR poorly resolves daily discharge variability in the Nuuk and Thule basins, but is better able to capture variability at longer time averages. Model-observation agreement is reduced during peak discharge events. The model-observation discharge discrepancies are likely due to an underestimation of cloud cover, from an overestimation of downward shortwave radiation. The discrepancies of model and measurements during peak discharge events is important to understand as they are expected to occur more frequently with continued warming. In a fourth study, annual and daily peak river discharge was unprecedented at all basins in the extreme melt season of 2012. Exceptional flows in all three rivers were observed corresponding with two ice sheet wide surface melt episodes in mid- and late-July 2012. These results suggest the need to further study runoff processes at the local-, basin- and continental-scale not fully captured by current RCMs. These four studies collectively contribute information that will allow for better understanding of Greenland’s complex hydrologic system. Finally, these studies provide the framework to improve physical representation of meltwater runoff and albedo components used in RCMs to project changes in Greenland’s mass loss, and subsequent contributions to sea level rise.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Geography
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_8070
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (xii, 207 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Ice sheets--Greenland
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Climatic changes
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Samiah Moustafa
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3FF3W9J
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Moustafa
GivenName
Samiah
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2017-04-17 07:37:11
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Name
Samiah Moustafa
Role
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Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
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Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2017-05-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2018-05-31
Type
Embargo
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after May 31st, 2018.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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