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Essays on the fertility and women in the labor market

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TitleInfo
Title
Essays on the fertility and women in the labor market
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Choi
NamePart (type = given)
Selim
NamePart (type = date)
1987-
DisplayForm
Selim Choi
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Moehling
NamePart (type = given)
Carolyn
DisplayForm
Carolyn Moehling
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Graduate Studies
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2017
DateOther (type = degree); (qualifier = exact)
2017-10
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2017
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
This thesis examineswomen’s fertility choices and their experiences in the labor market. In particular, I provide insights on how fertility choices of important women’s labor market behavior and outcomes in this thesis. In Chapter 2, I investigate the response of women’s fertility choices to financial incentives. I estimate the impact of, a cash-transfer type of pro-natalist policy on the probability and timing of births by evaluating the case of South Korean ‘baby bonus’ policy called ‘birth encouragement grants. I use the sample of married women taken from the Korea Labor and Income Panel Studies (KLIPS) and rely on the regional and over-time variation of the grant amounts for identification. There is the concern of endogeneity since the shared fertility patterns in the same county can affect the grant setting decision of county governments. I address thist by controlling for county fixed effects and the trend of pre-policy determinants of birth encouragement grants. Through this analysis, I find that the birth encouragement grants do not influence the fertility choices of women in Korea. Further, the results of the analysis imply that the work status and the earnings of women may be more significant factor of their fertility choices. In Chapter 3, I estimate the magnitude of the career cost of motherhood for working women in Korea, as the conclusion of Chapter 2 implies that the women’s fertility choices may be more closely related with their labor market outcome than the direct financial cost of having children. Using the Korea Labor and Income Panel Studies (KLIPS) data, I estimate the family gap in pay and job change frequency of Korean women. Unlike previous studies that only address the sample selection problem from low labor force participation of mothers, I further acknowledge that the prospect of pay and job change after childbirth can affect the fertility choices and address it by using instrumental variables. I find that motherhood induces about one job change and a 37% wage discount in South Korea; these findings are significantly different from the estimates derived from the type of specification frequently used in other studies, the fixed effect model with the Heckman selection correction. The Heckman model indicates only a 7~9% wage discount. That is, the presence of children reduces the mothers pay from their earning potentials by 7~9%. I also find that the family gap in pay can be partially explained by the information on job retention during childbirth and childrearing period. In Chapter 4, I evaluate the presence of sex discrimination in the job placement in labor market. Theoretically, uncertainty about the career breaks for children associated with female workers may drive firms to set higher bars for women for employment. Using the Youth Panel 2007 of South Korea and its rich information about college students’ educational backgrounds and future plans, I restrict the sample to the college seniors who indicated planning to seek large corporation jobs through their annual open recruitments, which are supposed to be fair and merit-based. Then, using a variation of the classical Oaxaca-Blinder method (Oaxaca, 1973; Blinder, 1973), I decompose the male-female difference in the probability of being placed in the large corporation jobs after college into the parts that can be explained by the average differences in the characteristics by sex and the part that cannot be explained by the characteristics. I focus on the labor market outcome of the first job of the college graduates to minimize the impact of unobservable factors of the gender gap in the labor market outcome other than the discrimination such as women sorting out for easier jobs once they form a family. The result supports the presence of sex discrimination in the large corporation open recruitments in Korea and confirms that female college students must make more human capital investments or ‘pass higher bars’ to have the same chance of employment by large corporations.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Economics
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Fertility
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_8296
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (xvi, 160 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Selim Choi
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3862KK2
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Rights

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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Choi
GivenName
Selim
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2017-08-20 09:11:55
AssociatedEntity
Name
selim choi
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
AssociatedObject
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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