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Entrance of monomethylmercury into marine phytoplankton and mercury dynamics and accumulation in the food web along the West Antarctic Peninsula

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TitleInfo
Title
Entrance of monomethylmercury into marine phytoplankton and mercury dynamics and accumulation in the food web along the West Antarctic Peninsula
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Sontag
NamePart (type = given)
Philip Tighe
NamePart (type = date)
1987-
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Philip Tighe Sontag
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RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
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Reinfelder
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John
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John Reinfelder
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Advisory Committee
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chair
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Yee
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Nathan
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Nathan Yee
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Advisory Committee
Role
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co-chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Schaefer
NamePart (type = given)
Jeffa
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Jeffa Schaefer
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
co-chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Steinberg
NamePart (type = given)
Debbie
DisplayForm
Debbie Steinberg
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Graduate Studies
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2018
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2018-05
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2018
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
Mercury (Hg) is a contaminant of global concern due to its volatile gas phase (Hg0) and toxicity both in its inorganic (Hg2+) and most importantly the organic form, monomethylmercury (MeHg), a developmental neurotoxin capable of crossing the blood brain barrier that increases in concentration at higher levels of marine food webs. Although the threat of MeHg upon exposure to humans is well known, knowledge of its behavior and accumulation in temperate marine ecosystems is in early stages of development and the accumulation of MeHg at the base of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) food web lacks even baseline data. To assess the entrance of MeHg into marine food webs and subsequent accumulation and magnification of the toxin, cellular MeHg uptake rates were examined in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton cultures in artificial and natural seawater with varying concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Along with lab incubations, Hg concentrations were measured in seawater, particulate organic matter (POM), and juvenile and adult Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in coastal, shelf, and slope waters along the WAP, and Hg and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured in feathers of three Pygoscelis penguin species (Adélie-P. adeliae, gentoo-P. papua, and chinstrap-P. antarctica) breeding sympatrically near Anver’s Island (~65°S). Results showed that the maximum MeHg uptake rates in temperate (7.9 to 20.6 attmol/cell/hr) and Antarctic (14.3 to 249 attmol/cell/hr) marine phytoplankton were observed at low DOC concentrations. Methylmercury concentrations in northern (~65°S) WAP krill collected near Anver’s Island were low (0.3 to 2.9 ng g-1), while high and variable concentrations of dissolved (0.06 to 0.92 pM) and particulate (0.07 to 7.49 ngMeHg/gtotbio) MeHg were measured at neighboring sites. Concentrations of total Hg (sum of inorganic and organic forms) and MeHg in northern WAP krill were significantly higher in juveniles than adults (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001, resp.). Mean concentrations of Hg in feathers were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in chinstrap (0.80±0.20 µg g-1) than sympatric breeding Adélie (0.09±0.05 µg g-1) and gentoo (0.16±0.08 µg g-1) penguins. These findings suggest that the WAP ecosystem receives inputs of Hg from ocean water masses and potentially glacial meltwater. Although krill accumulate MeHg at low levels depending on developmental stage and location, such accumulation still has the potential to support much higher MeHg accumulation in WAP top predators.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Environmental Sciences
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Food chains (Ecology)--Antarctica
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Methylmercury
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_8900
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (xxvii, 259 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Philip Tighe Sontag
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3GQ726V
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Sontag
GivenName
Philip
MiddleName
Tighe
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2018-04-13 20:16:12
AssociatedEntity
Name
Philip Sontag
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
AssociatedObject
Type
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Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2018-05-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2020-05-30
Type
Embargo
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after May 30th, 2020.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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2018-04-17T13:13:52
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2018-04-17T13:13:52
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