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Prokaryotic diversity, physiology and function at Tor Caldara, a shallow-water gas vent in the Tyrrhenian Sea

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TitleInfo
Title
Prokaryotic diversity, physiology and function at Tor Caldara, a shallow-water gas vent in the Tyrrhenian Sea
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Patwardhan
NamePart (type = given)
Sushmita S.
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Sushmita S. Patwardhan
Role
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author
Name (type = personal)
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Vetriani
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Costantino
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Costantino Vetriani
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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chair
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Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
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School of Graduate Studies
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
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Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2018
DateOther (type = degree); (qualifier = exact)
2018-10
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2018
Place
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xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
Despite being ubiquitous, shallow-water marine geothermal environments are under-studied compared to their deep-sea counterparts. In this study, I investigated the geochemistry and the composition, physiology and function of microbial communities at Tor Caldara, a shallow-water gas vent in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The four microbial habitats sampled included: crusts originated from compacted sediments, venting sandy sediments, control sediments and substrate-attached filamentous bacteria (young as well as established). At Tor Caldara, the venting gases are mainly composed of CO2 and H2S, with trace amounts of CH4, and a thermal anomaly could not be detected. The crust community is very unique, comprising phylotypes associated with sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to Deltaproteobacteria that are usually found in syntrophic association with anaerobic methane oxidizers at hydrocarbon seeps. The venting sediment community is dominated by sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic bacterial groups belonging to Alpha-, Gamma-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, while that of the non-venting sediment is dominated by phototrophic members belonging to Cyanobacteria. The established and young microbial filaments are dominated by chemoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing members of Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, respectively. Integrating geochemical measurements, microbial diversity surveys and physiological characterization of laboratory strains, I demonstrated that there is a temporal succession between the two filamentous microbial communities in response to age and possibly sulfide concentrations. Metagenomic and metaproteomic results showed presence of genes and proteins involved in nitrate reduction, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation/reduction, oxygen respiration, heavy metal detoxification and two carbon fixation pathways. Temporal succession between the young and established filamentous communities at a functional level was confirmed by differential abundance of key proteins involved in the carbon, sulfur and nitrogen cycles. Three metagenome-assembled genome (MAGs) representative of the filament community were also recovered. Based on taxonomic and functional diversity, chemoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing members of Epsilonproteobacteria dominated the young microbial filaments while the established microbial filaments are dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, demonstrating a shift in community over time. In addition to diversity and functional surveys, I isolated several bacterial strains and characterized a novel alphaproteobacterial genus with high metabolic versatility and sequenced its genome. Broadly, this study shows that Tor Caldara hosts very diverse and niche-specific microbial communities consisting of numerous previously uncharacterized bacterial and archaeal groups.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Oceanography
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Hydrothermal vents
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Prokaryotes
RelatedItem (type = host)
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Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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ETD
Identifier
ETD_9131
PhysicalDescription
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electronic resource
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (133 pages : illustrations)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Sushmita S. Patwardhan
Subject (authority = lcsh/lcnaf)
Geographic
Tyrrhenian Sea
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Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-ggna-cz18
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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Patwardhan
GivenName
Sushmita S.
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2018-08-07 09:30:40
AssociatedEntity
Name
Sushmita Patwardhan
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
Type
Embargo
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2018-10-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2020-10-30
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after October 30th, 2020.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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2018-08-06T20:01:57
DateCreated (point = end); (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
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