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Evaluation and breeding of fine fescues for low maintenance applications

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Title
Evaluation and breeding of fine fescues for low maintenance applications
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Grimshaw
NamePart (type = given)
Austin Lee
NamePart (type = date)
1988-
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Austin Lee Grimshaw
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Bonos
NamePart (type = given)
Stacy
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Stacy Bonos
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Advisory Committee
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chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Meyer
NamePart (type = given)
William
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William Meyer
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
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Zhang
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Ning
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Ning Zhang
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
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Watkins
NamePart (type = given)
Eric
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Eric Watkins
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
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outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Graduate Studies
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (keyDate = yes); (qualifier = exact)
2019
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2019-05
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019
Language
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English
Abstract (type = abstract)
Fine fescues (Festuca spp.) are being bred for low-maintenance turfgrass applications. One of the major limitations to the widespread use of fine fescue is summer patch susceptibility and traffic tolerance. Magnaporthiopsis poae (Landschoot & Jackson), is the long known causal organism of summer patch, however recent research has found a new species, Magnaporthiopsis meyeri-festucae (Luo & Zhang) from the diseased roots of fine fescue turfgrasses exhibiting summer patch symptoms. Breeding for improved tolerance to summer patch is critical but in order to do so a better understanding of the pathogen(s) is necessary. During 2017 and 2018, isolates of M. meyeri-festucae were compared to isolates of M. poae through plant-fungal interaction in growth chamber experiments and in vitro fungicide sensitivity assays with penthiopyrad, azoxystrobin, and metconazole. In the plant-fungal interaction experiments, M. poae was shown to exhibit higher levels of virulence than M. meyeri-festucae; however, certain isolates of the two species were ranked equal. In the fungicide sensitivity assays, an isolate of M. meyeri-festucae was shown to be 9.5 times more tolerant to azoxystrobin than a M. poae isolate. These results indicate that M. meyeri-festucae may be involved with summer patch symptoms of fine fescue under field conditions and should be considered along with M. poae when breeding for tolerance and developing best management strategies for controlling summer patch disease in fine fescue.
Genetic resistance is an important control strategy and could reduce fungicide use. This study determined narrow-sense heritability of summer patch resistance in hard fescue (F. brevilipa R. Tracey) and evaluated inheritance characteristics of summer patch disease resistance. Inheritance characteristics such as heterosis were determined by evaluating the disease severity of progeny from crosses between resistant and susceptible hard fescue clones. Parental clones and progenies from crosses were established in a field trial in a randomized complete block design and inoculated with an isolate of both M. poae and M. meyeri-festucae applied at a rate of 3 cc per plant of prepared inoculum. Differences in progeny means between crosses were observed. Progeny from resistant × resistant crosses had less disease severity than resistant × susceptible and susceptible × susceptible crosses. Medium narrow-sense heritability estimates support the idea that additive gene action plays a role in disease resistance and that summer patch resistance is possibly quantitatively inherited.
To better understand the tolerance to wear and traffic replicated field studies were established in North Brunswick, NJ and St. Paul, MN, and each included 157 Chewings fescue (F. rubra ssp. commutata Gaudin; syn. F. rubra ssp. fallax (Thuill.) Nyman), 155 hard fescue, and 149 strong creeping red fescue (F. rubra L. rubra Gaudin) genotypes. Wear tolerance was evaluated in North Brunswick and traffic tolerance was evaluated in St. Paul during 2015 and 2016 using different simulators to determine both plant performance and broad-sense heritability estimates for wear and traffic tolerance. Broad sense heritability estimates for the three species when calculated on a clonal basis was between 0.69 and 0.82 for wear tolerance in the North Brunswick location and between 0.49 and 0.60 for traffic tolerance in the St. Paul location. On a single plant basis, broad sense heritability estimates for the three species were between 0.31 and 0.45 for wear tolerance in the North Brunswick location and 0.09 and 0.12 for traffic tolerance in St. Paul. However, this research does indicate that improvement of wear and traffic tolerance in fine fescues is possible through recurrent breeding methods based on selection of replicated clonally propagated genotypes rather than selection of single individual plants of a population. This was the first study to determine the genetic effects of wear and traffic tolerance in any turfgrass species.
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
Fine fescue
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Plant Biology
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Fescue -- Breeding
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Fescue -- Genetics
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_9565
PhysicalDescription
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (xi, 100 pages) : illustrations
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
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School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-d1fb-8q95
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Grimshaw
GivenName
Austin
MiddleName
Lee
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2019-02-28 11:15:48
AssociatedEntity
Name
Austin Grimshaw
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Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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2019-02-28T11:10:20
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