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Brood-dependent morphology, behavior, and biophysical interactions among blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) zoeae

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Title
Brood-dependent morphology, behavior, and biophysical interactions among blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) zoeae
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Caracappa
NamePart (type = given)
Joseph Charles
NamePart (type = date)
1991-
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Joseph Charles Caracappa Jr.
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RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
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Jr.
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Munroe
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Daphne
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Daphne Munroe
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Advisory Committee
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chair
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Robert
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Robert Chant
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Fuchs
NamePart (type = given)
Heidi
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Heidi Fuchs
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
López-Duarte
NamePart (type = given)
Paola
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Paola López-Duarte
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Advisory Committee
Role
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
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Jivoff
NamePart (type = given)
Paul
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Paul Jivoff
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Advisory Committee
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outside member
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NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
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School of Graduate Studies
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school
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Text
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theses
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DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019
DateOther (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2019-10
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2019
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English
Abstract (type = abstract)
The goal of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of the intraspecific variability in morphology and swimming behavior, as well as some of the implications of such variation, in early stage Callinectes sapidus zoeae. A long-standing body of work has demonstrated that zoeal morphology is not constant, and morphological features can have an important role in survival and behavior. Additionally, given the presence in brood-dependent morphology in other species and the susceptibility of blue crab life history to generate maternal effects, the presence and magnitude of differences among larval broods should be addressed. In the second chapter, variation in C. sapidus zoeal morphology among several larval broods was identified, and used to test whether brood-dependent morphology is present. This experiment involved hatching several broods, making measurements using microscope photography, and image analysis. Simple models of swimming-induced drag and passive sinking velocity were used to create an index of vertical swimming efficiency. Results discussed in Chapter 2 demonstrate that morphology can vary significantly between broods, and these differences can translate to differing swimming efficiency. In the third chapter, larvae from the same broods described in Chapter 2 were followed further into development to investigate how brood-level morphological differences change over development. By the time of their second molt, broods of zoeae retain most differences in morphological size and shape, but shape difference decrease. These results suggest that over time, brood effects can persist, but there is a detectible morphological convergence, and differences in swimming efficiency are still present. Chapter four tested whether the brood-dependent morphology discussed in the prior chapters translated to similar differences in swimming behavior. Using mesocosm video observations, significant differences in the swimming velocity, orientation, and path straightness of larval broods was confirmed. Despite these differences, distinct modes of behavior that were conserved across broods were observed. These represent differences in swimming behavior within broods either between individuals or over time. In the fifth chapter, simulations were used to test whether the observed brood-dependent behavior and morphology can translate to differences in larval transport. A simplified model of a wind-driven estuarine plume with a sheared current was used, along with observed brood-depending swimming and sinking behaviors, to model larval transport. Model results showed brood-dependent and behaviorally-driven larval transport, where faster-swimming broods of larvae are more able to counter wind-driven vertical mixing and stay in surface waters. Likewise, the type of depth-regulation zoeae use can influence how they are transported. Overall, this dissertation finds that morphological and behavioral traits can differ substantially between larval broods. These results suggest that there may be differential success of larvae from different broods. I recommend that future work could focus on identifying maternal or environmental predictors of larval condition. Additionally, future models of C. sapidus larval dispersal should incorporate observed behavior and its variability.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Oceanography
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
Callinectes sapidus
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Blue crab -- Larvae -- Morphology
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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ETD_10396
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application/pdf
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text/xml
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1 online resource (xix, 177 pages) : illustrations
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
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School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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rucore10001600001
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-d32a-n668
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Caracappa
GivenName
Joseph
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2019-10-09 18:40:57
AssociatedEntity
Name
Joseph Caracappa
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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Author Agreement License
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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Copyright protected
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Open
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Permission or license
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