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Changes in nutritional biomarkers, sleep, perceived stress, and performance in Division I female soccer players throughout a competitive season

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TitleInfo
Title
Changes in nutritional biomarkers, sleep, perceived stress, and performance in Division I female soccer players throughout a competitive season
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Hofacker
NamePart (type = given)
Morgan Leigh
NamePart (type = date)
1993-
DisplayForm
Morgan Leigh Hofacker
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Arent
NamePart (type = given)
Shawn M
DisplayForm
Shawn M Arent
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Campbell
NamePart (type = given)
Sara
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Sara Campbell
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
McKeever
NamePart (type = given)
Kenneth
DisplayForm
Kenneth McKeever
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Graduate Studies
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school
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Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (keyDate = yes); (qualifier = exact)
2019
DateOther (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2019-10
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007); (type = text)
English
Abstract (type = abstract)
Background: A balance between training stress and recovery is essential for successful athletic performance, thus the development of an evidence-based approach to monitoring changes in stress and recovery is critical. The purpose of this study was to combine analysis of nutritional biomarkers with mood, sleep, and performance assessments to examine changes in recovery and training status throughout a competitive season. Methods: Division I female collegiate soccer players (N=25; Mage=19.4 + 1.4 yrs; Mht= 167.9 + 6.3 cm) participated in blood draws at the beginning of preseason (T1) and every four weeks after within ~18 hours following a game (T2-T4). Athletes arrived well hydrated following an overnight fast. Several performance tests were administered prior to the start of preseason (PT1) and end-of-season (PT2). These included body composition (body fat (%BF), fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), vertical jump (VJ), and VO2max. Glutamine (Glu), Taurine (Tau), Tryptophan (Trp), Phenylalanine (Phe), Iron (Fe), Vitamin B12 (VitB12), Vitamin D (VitD), and Omega-3 (n-3FA) were analyzed. Mood and sleep were assessed using the Multi-Component Training Distress Scale (MTDS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. Workload was assessed using several measures including heart rate data, distance covered (Dis), caloric expenditure (kcal), caloric expenditure (kcal/kg), and training load (TL). Additionally, counter movement jump (CMJ) was assessed at the beginning of practice at each time point. RM MANOVAs with univariate follow-ups were conducted with significance at P<0.05. Results: Weight was maintained throughout the season despite an increase in LBM (P<.05) and a decrease in %BF (P<.05). VO2max and VT significantly decreased (P<0.05). CMJ was maintained from T1-T3 but began to decline at T4. Measures related to training load decreased following T1-T2 (P<0.05; ESTL=-2.86, ESDis=-1.33, ESkcal=-2.22, ESkcal/kg=-2.78) and remained depressed through T4. Total mood disturbance increased from T2-T3 (∆Mood= 6.4 ± 1.9, P<.05) and remained elevated. There was an initial decrease in perceived stress (PS) from T1-T2 (P<0.05, ES=-0.95) that was followed by an increase at later portions of the season (P<0.05). No changes in sleep quality (SQ) were seen. Sleep duration (SD) increased from T3-T4 (∆SD=0.4±0.1, P<.05). n-3FA increased from T1-T2 (∆n-3FA= 0.5 ± 0.1 %, P<.05), then returned to baseline. VitD decreased from T1-T2 (∆VitD= 6.8 ± 1.4 ng/mL, P<.05) and continued a downward trend. VitB12 increased from T1-T3 (∆VitB12= 72.0 ± 18.8 pg/mL, P<.05) and remained elevated. Fe decreased from T1-T2 (∆Fe= -29.6 ± 7.9 mcg/dL, P<.05), before returning to baseline. There were no significant changes in Phe or Tau (P>.05). Trp decreased from T2-T3 (∆Trp = -10.9 ± 4.3 umol/L, P<.05) and remained depressed. Glu increased from T1-T2 (∆Glu = 82.1 ± 23.1 umol/L, P<.05) then returned to baseline. Conclusions: The highest training stress occurred during the initial training block (T1-T2) and resulted in negative changes in VitD and Fe. The greatest mood disturbance occurred at the end of the season when Trp levels also declined. Trp, a precursor of serotonin, may provide a mechanism for understanding changes in mood typically reported with overreaching. Decreases in VO2max and VT also occurred at the end of the season which corresponded to tournament play. SQ may be more important for full recovery than SD, as increased SD did not mitigate changes in mood. These results highlight the stress experienced by a collegiate athlete during a condensed season including increased physiological disruption around tournament play. Further, this holistic approach to athlete monitoring may provide greater insight to assessing accumulated stress both on and off the field by tracking physiological, nutritional, and psychological changes throughout a season.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Kinesiology and Applied Physiology
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Women soccer players -- Health and hygiene
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Soccer -- Physiological aspects
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Soccer -- Psychological aspects
Subject (authority = local)
Topic
Sports science
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_10216
PhysicalDescription
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (viii, 76 pages) : illustrations
Note (type = degree)
M.S.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
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Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-tgrm-5g16
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD graduate
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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Hofacker
GivenName
Morgan
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2019-09-04 14:23:24
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Morgan Hofacker
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Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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Open
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2019-09-04T14:23:29
DateCreated (point = end); (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019-09-04T14:23:29
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