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Anisotropic seismic properties beneath the Northern Appalachians: a guide for past and present deformations within the upper mantle

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Title
Anisotropic seismic properties beneath the Northern Appalachians: a guide for past and present deformations within the upper mantle
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Li
NamePart (type = given)
Yiran
NamePart (type = date)
1994-
DisplayForm
Yiran Li
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Levin
NamePart (type = given)
Vadim
DisplayForm
Vadim Levin
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Herzberg
NamePart (type = given)
Claude T
DisplayForm
Claude T Herzberg
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Fan Reinfelder
NamePart (type = given)
Ying
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Ying Fan Reinfelder
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Graduate Studies
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
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2019
DateOther (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2019-10
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007); (type = text)
English
Abstract (type = abstract)
Seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of seismic velocity, is a proxy for deformation at the depth. Within the Earth’s upper mantle, anisotropic seismic observations likely reflect the strain-induced realignment of olivine crystals, which is the major component of upper mantle peridotite. The pervasive mineralogical fabrics form by both the present-day convection of asthenosphere, and the past deformations imprinted in the lithosphere by plate motion and orogenesis. The topography and the surface geology of the Northern Appalachians provide evidences for past tectonic events that had altered the continental margin. Thus, the observation of seismic anisotropy beneath this region should reflect contributions from both the lithosphere and the asthenosphere.
We infer and characterize the seismic anisotropy beneath the Northern Appalachians using the observations of core-refracted shear phases. The multiple provenances of seismic anisotropy likely vary the anisotropic properties along the wave’s ray path. As a result, the apparent splitting parameters within each station change with respect to the wave’s propagation direction. To effectively compare the directionally varying splitting parameters across the region, we selected data based on a template list of 61 events with optimized back azimuthal coverage. In addition to single phase splitting measurements, we also obtained station-averaged splitting parameters using Splitting Intensity (SI) technique to consider both split and non-split measurements.
Regionally, the trends of averaged fast axes appear coherent and align with the direction of regional absolute plate motion (average of 249°). The general disparity between the fast axes and the trend of surface tectonic features suggests dominant asthenosphere contribution for the observed seismic anisotropy. The averaged delay times, however, are laterally variable with concentrated localities of smaller delays. The visual comparisons between the datasets of neighboring stations reveal similar splitting patterns with respect to back azimuths and inclination angles, enough for them to be grouped into four regions of distinct anisotropic seismic observations. Such mode of lateral variation suggests that the layered system beneath the region’s upper mantle is not uniform but vary geographically and may correspond to localized mantle structures associated with the modification of lithosphere. The inferred domain boundaries correlate only locally with the surficial geological features, and better correlate with the variation of seismic properties in the mantle as suggested by tomography.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Geological Sciences
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_10291
PhysicalDescription
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application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (viii, 66 pages) : illustrations
Note (type = degree)
M.S.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Subject (authority = lcsh/lcnaf)
Geographic
Appalachian Mountains
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-8cxg-nd50
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD graduate
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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Li
GivenName
Yiran
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2019-09-21 16:18:10
AssociatedEntity
Name
Yiran Li
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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Name
Author Agreement License
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Copyright
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Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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www.ilovepdf.com
DateCreated (point = end); (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019-09-21T20:04:35
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