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Phytoplasma-mediated manipulation of plant-herbivore interactions in the American cranberry

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TitleInfo
Title
Phytoplasma-mediated manipulation of plant-herbivore interactions in the American cranberry
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Pradit
NamePart (type = given)
Nakorn
NamePart (type = date)
1983-
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Nakorn Pradit
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Rodriguez-Saona
NamePart (type = given)
Cesar
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Cesar Rodriguez-Saona
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Hamilton
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George C.
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George C. Hamilton
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Morin
NamePart (type = given)
Peter J.
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Peter J. Morin
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Hillman
NamePart (type = given)
Bradley I.
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Bradley I. Hillman
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Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Mescher
NamePart (type = given)
Mark C.
DisplayForm
Mark C. Mescher
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Graduate Studies
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (keyDate = yes); (qualifier = exact)
2019
DateOther (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2019-10
CopyrightDate (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007); (type = text)
English
Abstract (type = abstract)
The transmission of insect-borne pathogens mainly relies on the foraging and feeding behavior of their insect vectors. Changes in phytochemicals, especially volatiles, nutrients and chemical defenses, of host plants from pathogen infection can facilitate the performance and preference of insect vectors. Moreover, in the ecosystem, these changes in infected host plants can also affect non-vector herbivorous insects. In the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., false blossom disease is caused by a phytoplasma that requires the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii Van Duzee, as a vector. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) phytoplasma infection enhances L. vaccinii performance and preference on infected plants, (2) phytoplasma infection enhances the performance of three non-vector leaf feeders, and (3) phytoplasma infection alters levels of phytochemicals and expression of gene related to primary (i.e., nutrients) and secondary (i.e., plant defenses) metabolism in cranberries. Phytoplasma infection had conflicting effects on its vector. L. vaccinii had similar survival rates on infected and uninfected cranberries; however, nymphs developed more slowly and adults had higher mass on infected plants than on uninfected plants, indicative of a short-term positive effect. In contrast, female L. vaccinii laid less eggs on infected plants than uninfected plants, indicative of a potential negative long-term effect on population size. In no-choice tests, L. vaccinii preferred volatiles from uninfected plants; uninfected plants emit higher volatile emissions than infected plants. Besides these effects on the vector, larvae of three common non-vector herbivores: spotted fireworm (Choristoneura parallela Robinson), Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens), and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) had 2-3 times higher mass, and damaged 1.5-3.5 times more leaves, when feeding on infected vs. uninfected plants. Larval survival of S. sulfurena and L. dispar also improved on infected plants. Nutrient levels were higher in infected plants, while defensive proanthocyanidins were lower, which may explain the short-term benefits in performance by vector and non-vector herbivores. Phytoplasma infection induced expression of 132 genes and suppressed expression of 225 genes in cranberries. Expression of genes associated with nutrient metabolism (i.e., carbohydrate) were up-regulated, while those associated with defensive pathways were down-regulated, in the phytoplasma-infected plants. Our study suggests that phytoplasma-infected plants may rely on visual cues and volatiles from neighboring uninfected plants to attract its vector L. vaccinii. After attraction, L. vaccinii feeding might be facilitated through elevated nutrient and reduced defensive metabolite levels in infected plants. These findings support the "vector manipulation hypothesis." This vector facilitation also benefits other, non-vector, herbivores in the cranberry community. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying tri-partite interactions among plants, pathogens, and herbivores could help in the development of ways to reduce disease transmission by improving host-plant resistance against diseases and pests of crops.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Entomology
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Cranberries -- Disease and pest resistance -- Genetic aspects
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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ETD
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ETD_10083
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (x, 141 pages) : illustrations
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
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TitleInfo
Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
Location
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-d3n8-ge31
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Pradit
GivenName
Nakorn
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2019-06-20 03:06:26
AssociatedEntity
Name
Nakorn Pradit
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
AssociatedObject
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
RightsEvent
Type
Embargo
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2019-10-31
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = end)
2020-05-01
Detail
Access to this PDF has been restricted at the author's request. It will be publicly available after May 1st, 2020.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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2019-06-19T23:05:21
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2019-06-20T03:04:49
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