Staff View
Parasites and ecosystem energy flow

Descriptive

TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo (ID = T-1)
Title
Parasites and ecosystem energy flow
SubTitle
PartName
PartNumber
NonSort
Identifier (displayLabel = ); (invalid = )
ETD_1831
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.2/rucore10001600001.ETD.000051854
Language (objectPart = )
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2); (type = code)
eng
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
Subject (ID = SBJ-1); (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Ecology and Evolution
Subject (ID = SBJ-2); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Host-parasite relationships
Subject (ID = SBJ-3); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Ecology
Abstract
It has been difficult to incorporate parasites into ecological studies at the community and ecosystem levels. The small size of parasites makes them easily overlooked, and the effects of parasites can often be subtle, indirect and difficult to measure. In this thesis I argue that the best way to include parasites into ecological studies is to measure the direct costs of parasites at the individual, population, and community levels. Furthermore, I propose that the best measure of cost is direct energy loss because this metric will scale from the individual to the ecosystem level. Thus, the objectives of this dissertation were to determine the direct and indirect energetic costs of parasitism within individuals, populations, and communities of hosts. To determine the energetic effects of parasites, field surveys, bomb calorimetry, and respirometry were used to create energy budgets for all species collected from streams of the New Jersey Pinelands, including the parasites. The most common parasite was Acanthocephalus tehlequahensis, and at the individual and population level, this parasite significantly alters the energy allocation patterns in its isopod intermediate host. Infection increased ingestion and respiration, decreased survival and reproduction, and caused significantly more production energy to be allocated to growth. This parasite extracted 6.7% of the production energy from the isopod population (infected and uninfected hosts). On the other hand, in the definitive hosts, the parasite had little effect on energy allocation, and there were no significant differences in the energy budgets between infected and uninfected pirate perch hosts infected with A. tehlequahensis and the trematode Phyllodsitomum sp. Although, parasite infection double to the proportion of production energy allocated to reproduction from 7% to 14%, and parasites within the fish population (infected and uninfected hosts) received 1.3% of the host’s production energy. At the ecosystem level, energy budgets were created within two pineland streams, one with a high-level of parasitism and one with a low level of parasitism. Parasites extracted a small amount of energy from both streams (<1%), but proportionally less energy went to parasitism in the stream with low levels of parasitism. Parasite establishment within this stream may be constrained by energy flow through the food web because little energy makes it up the food web to trophic levels that parasites infect. A stable isotope analysis (δ13C andδ15N) was used to determine energy flow and trophic relationships of adult and juvenile parasites and their hosts. There were significant differences in δ15N values of juvenile and adult parasites, and different parasite species within the same hosts. These data suggest that juvenile parasites can feed at a higher trophic level than their adult counter-parts, and when co-occurring within the same fish host different parasite species may acquire energy from different trophic positions. The results of this dissertation suggest that parasites require a small amount of energy from their hosts at all levels of ecological organization. However, parasites are intimately tied to the energy flow of a system because they alter energy allocation patterns of their hosts, they derive their energy from many trophic levels within a food web, and energy dynamics may regulate parasite establishment and maintenance at the ecosystem level. Therefore, energy can be a useful metric in determining the ecological costs of parasitism.
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
Extent
ix, 164 p. : ill.
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 148-163)
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Stacey E. Lettini
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Lettini
NamePart (type = given)
Stacey E.
NamePart (type = date)
1979-
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
author
DisplayForm
Stacey e. Lettini
Name (ID = NAME-2); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Sukhdeo
NamePart (type = given)
Michael
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
chair
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Michael V.K. Sukhdeo
Name (ID = NAME-3); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Dighton
NamePart (type = given)
John
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
internal member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
John Dighton
Name (ID = NAME-4); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
John-Alder
NamePart (type = given)
Henry
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
internal member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Henry John-Alder
Name (ID = NAME-5); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Huffman
NamePart (type = given)
Jane
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
outside member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
DisplayForm
Jane Huffman
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
degree grantor
Name (ID = NAME-2); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB); (type = )
school
OriginInfo
DateCreated (point = ); (qualifier = exact)
2009
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2009-10
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3833S7D
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
Back to the top

Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = GS); (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Notice
Note
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
Note
RightsHolder (ID = PRH-1); (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Lettini
GivenName
Stacey
Role
Copyright holder
RightsEvent (ID = RE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
Permission or license
Label
Place
DateTime
Detail
AssociatedEntity (ID = AE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Role
Copyright holder
Name
Stacey Lettini
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
AssociatedObject (ID = AO-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Back to the top

Technical

ContentModel
ETD
MimeType (TYPE = file)
application/pdf
MimeType (TYPE = container)
application/x-tar
FileSize (UNIT = bytes)
1280000
Checksum (METHOD = SHA1)
f88f4428d44038d97ad77c1c4cb904c060319ae7
Back to the top
Version 8.3.13
Rutgers University Libraries - Copyright ©2021