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Estimating the process of speciation for humans and chimpanzees

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Text
TitleInfo (ID = T-1)
Title
Estimating the process of speciation for humans and chimpanzees
SubTitle
PartName
PartNumber
NonSort
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ETD_1871
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.2/rucore10001600001.ETD.000051916
Language (objectPart = )
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eng
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
Subject (ID = SBJ-1); (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
Subject (ID = SBJ-2); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Human beings--Origin
Subject (ID = SBJ-3); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Human evolution
Subject (ID = SBJ-4); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Chimpanzees
Abstract
One of the most fascinating questions for evolutionary scientists is “How did humans arise as a new species?” In the last seventy years, two major schools of theory, allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation, have been developed and applied to explain the speciation process. Allopatric theory attributes the inducement of speciation to the establishment of geographic barriers that abruptly divide the ancestral population into two reproductively isolated groups, while sympatric theory emphasizes the role of divergent selection, leading to assortive mating and gradually diminishing gene flow. The two different scenarios should leave distinct footprints in the derivative genomes of the emerging species. Many mathematical methods have been developed to study human-chimpanzee speciation history by studying the genetic variation pattern in current human and chimpanzee populations. However, most methods either fail to incorporate sympatric speciation, or use datasets that don’t provide enough information about ancient divergence. In this study, we developed a new maximum likelihood method for analyzing genome data under the ‘isolation with migration’ model. Testing with simulated datasets demonstrates that this method is capable of generating accurate estimates regarding both current and ancient evolutionary histories. We applied this method to the whole-genome alignment of human, chimpanzee and orangutan. The estimated human-chimpanzee speciation time is 4.3 million years (Myr). This estimate is in agreement with several previous studies. A more important finding of our study is a weak but significant one-way gene flow from the chimpanzee to the human population (0.002 migrations per generation). Simulation studies confirm that this gene flow is not an artifact created by within-locus recombination or violation of other assumptions of our method. A further analysis finds that the gene flow from chimpanzees into humans and chimpanzees persisted for a limited period of time, subsequent to the initial separation. These results lead us to favor a speciation process for humans and chimpanzees that includes some limited genetic exchange.
PhysicalDescription
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electronic resource
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viii, 99 p. : ill.
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Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 95-98)
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Yong Wang
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Wang
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Yong
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1980-
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Yong Wang
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Matise
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chair
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Tara Matise
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Hey
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Jody
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internal member
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Advisory Committee
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Jody Hey
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Smouse
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Peter
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internal member
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Peter Smouse
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Madigan
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David
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outside member
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Advisory Committee
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David Madigan
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Rutgers University
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degree grantor
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Graduate School - New Brunswick
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school
OriginInfo
DateCreated (point = ); (qualifier = exact)
2009
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2009-10
Place
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xx
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Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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ETD
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Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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rucore19991600001
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3W959CT
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = GS); (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Notice
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Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
Note
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Name
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Wang
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Yong
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Yong Wang
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
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Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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