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Microbial transformations of tetrabromobisphenol A and its metabolites, and their impact on toxicity to the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo

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TypeOfResource
Text
TitleInfo (ID = T-1)
Title
Microbial transformations of tetrabromobisphenol A and its metabolites, and their impact on toxicity to the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo
Identifier
ETD_2549
Identifier (type = hdl)
http://hdl.rutgers.edu/1782.2/rucore10001600001.ETD.000053122
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2); (type = code)
eng
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
Subject (ID = SBJ-1); (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
Subject (ID = SBJ-2); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Zebra danio--Toxicology
Subject (ID = SBJ-3); (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Metabolites
Abstract (type = abstract)
Anthropogenic chemicals are of concern because they are resistant to biodegradation, can accumulate in aquatic environments and sediments, and biomagnify in the food chain. One such compound, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant worldwide. TBBPA contamination has been detected in dust, sediments, and aquatic environments as well as in human serum, breast milk and other tissues of aquatic and terrestrial animals. Microorganisms utilize these chemicals by many mechanisms for degradation or transformation resulting in metabolites with different environmental fates. Microorganisms in the environment can transform TBBPA either by anaerobic dehalogenation to bisphenol A (BPA) or aerobic O-methylation to TBBPA dimethyl ether (TBBPA DME). Mycobacterium spp. were able to O-methylate TBBPA at a faster rate than BPA. Additionally, these data demonstrate that TBBPA O-methylation is a ubiquitous reaction in the environment. However, O-methylating organisms comprise only a minor portion of the total heterotrophic population. To determine whether microbial metabolism alters the toxicity of TBBPA, zebrafish embryos were exposed to TBBPA and its metabolites. These data show that BPA and TBBPA DME exhibit lower potency that TBBPA, demonstrating that microbial metabolism results in products with reduced toxicity. In addition, while all three caused edema and hemorrhage, only TBBPA caused decreased heart rate, edema of the trunk, and tail malformations. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression was examined due to the role of these enzymes in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during tissue morphogenesis, wound healing and cell migration. The trunk and tail phenotypes seen after TBBPA exposure could in part be due to alteration of proper MMP expression/activity. Unlike the O-methylation of TBBPA, transformation of BPA to BPA monomethyl and BPA dimethyl ether results in increased toxicity to the developing zebrafish embryo causing increased mortality at 5 and 28 days post fertilization and lower LC50 values than for TBBPA DME. Taken together, the data presented in this thesis indicate that microbial metabolism of brominated flame retardants results in compounds with differing toxicity. Further, these data illustrate a new mechanism for microbial transformation of BPA, producing metabolites warranting further study to understand their prevalence in the environment.
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
Extent
xiv, 176 p. : ill.
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note
Includes abstract
Note
Vita
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Jessica Marie McCormick
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
McCormick
NamePart (type = given)
Jessica Marie
NamePart (type = date)
1978-
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author
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Jessica McCormick
Name (ID = NAME-2); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
White
NamePart (type = given)
Lori A
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chair
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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Lori A White
Name (ID = NAME-3); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Haggblom
NamePart (type = given)
Max M
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internal member
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Advisory Committee
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Max M Haggblom
Name (ID = NAME-4); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Kerkhof
NamePart (type = given)
Lee
Role
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internal member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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Lee Kerkhof
Name (ID = NAME-5); (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Cooper
NamePart (type = given)
Keith R
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
outside member
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
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Keith R Cooper
Name (ID = NAME-1); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (ID = NAME-2); (type = corporate)
NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2010
DateOther (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2010
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T3HM58JB
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (AUTHORITY = GS); (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
RightsHolder (ID = PRH-1); (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
McCormick
GivenName
Jessica
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent (ID = RE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
Permission or license
DateTime
2010-04-07 23:50:56
AssociatedEntity (ID = AE-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Role
Copyright holder
Name
Jessica McCormick
Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
AssociatedObject (ID = AO-1); (AUTHORITY = rulib)
Type
License
Name
Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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ETD
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application/pdf
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application/x-tar
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4454400
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