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Effects of high fat feeding and dietary vitamin D on calcium, bone, and vitamin D metabolism in mature mice

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Title
Effects of high fat feeding and dietary vitamin D on calcium, bone, and vitamin D metabolism in mature mice
Name (type = personal)
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Wang
NamePart (type = given)
Yang
NamePart (type = date)
1989-
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Yang Wang
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author
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Miller
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Joshua W
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Joshua W Miller
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Advisory Committee
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chair
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Shapses
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Sue A
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Sue A Shapses
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Advisory Committee
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co-chair
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Watford
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Malcolm
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Malcolm Watford
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Bello
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Nicholas T
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Nicholas T Bello
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Buckendahl
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Patricia
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Patricia Buckendahl
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Advisory Committee
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outside member
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Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
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NamePart
Graduate School - New Brunswick
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school
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Text
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theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (qualifier = exact)
2017
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2017-05
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2017
Place
PlaceTerm (type = code)
xx
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO639-2b); (type = code)
eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
Dietary fat sources containing high caloric energy are closely linked to energy overconsumption induced obesity leading to a variety of health problems, including compromised bone quality. High fat diets (HFD) also affect calcium metabolism. However, effects of HFD on intestinal calcium absorption and bone health in mature animals have not been addressed, and different types of dietary fatty acids may have differential effects (e.g. monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs. saturated fatty acids (SFA). In addition, low circulating vitamin D status is commonly found in obese individuals. However, the nature of the association between vitamin D deficiency and obesity remains unclear because an underlying mechanism for the association has not been delineated. Therefore, in the current dissertation, we sought to reveal the effects of dietary fat and vitamin D intake on calcium and vitamin D metabolism and bone health using a mature mouse model. In study 1, the effects of HFD enriched with MUFA or with SFA on intestinal calcium absorption and bone health in mature lean mice were investigated. C57BL/6J mice were weight-controlled fed with either 10% normal fat diet (NFD) or a HFD (45% fat) enriched with either MUFA or SFA for 10wk. We found that high compared with normal fat intake induced higher fractional Ca absorption (Ca45 isotope method) and this did not differ with the type of dietary fatty acids (MUFA vs. SFA). In contrast, only the high fat feeding with SFA adversely affected total and femoral area bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), while MUFA was associated with greater femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and thickness (micro-computerized tomography system). In study 2, the objective was to determine whether high MUFA intake would have a neutral or even a beneficial effect on mature bone health under conditions of excess caloric intake and obesity, and whether high MUFA and SFA feeding would differentially affect vitamin D metabolism in obese mice. After ad libitum feeding C57BL/6J mice 10% NFD or 45% HFD enriched with MUFA or SFA for 10wk, we found that the HFD enriched with SFA, but not MUFA, resulted in greater energy intake, weight gain, total body fat mass (EchoMRI Body Composition Analyzer), and liver fat. High SFA intake, but not MUFA, also adversely affected femoral trabecular bone parameters, though no detrimental effects of SFA on bone mass were seen in mature mice under the condition of excess caloric intake and obesity. Moreover, high fat feeding lowered circulating 25OHD concentration (ELISA), which was also inversely associated with body fat percentage. However, this finding was not explained by differential effects of MUFA and SFA on gene (rt-PCR) and protein (western blotting) expression of hepatic vitamin D 25-hydroxylase Cyp2r1 in mature mice. In study 3, the aim was to determine effects of dietary vitamin D on food intake and adiposity with and without high fat feeding. We found that supplemental vitamin D showed no beneficial effects on preventing HFD-induced obesity. Under conditions of high fat feeding, low vitamin D intake appeared to increase food intake, weight gain, and adiposity compared to the HFD-normal vitamin D diet, but the magnitude of the effect was inconsistent between two separate experiments. We also investigated the role of low vitamin D intake on serotonin production and major markers involved in the vitamin D and serotonergic pathways in the brain. It was found that low D intake, regardless of the presence of high fat feeding, lowered gene expression of vitamin D 1╬▒-hydroxylase Cyp27b1 and frontal cortex serotonin concentrations in the brain. In conclusion, this dissertation addressed the role of different amounts (high vs. normal) and types (MUFA vs. SFA) of dietary fat intake on Ca and vitamin D metabolism and bone health in mature female mice. Our findings support that high fat feeding increases intestinal Ca absorption and lowers circulating vitamin D status, and these effects were not dependent on the type of dietary fatty acids (MUFA vs. SFA). In contrast, dietary fat rich in SFA has detrimental effects on mature bone quality regardless of the presence of obesity, whereas high MUFA intake shows a neutral effect. Moreover, it was found that vitamin D deficiency combined with HFD potentially promotes food intake and weight gain that might be related to lowered cerebral serotonin concentration. Overall, the interaction of fatty acids on calcium and vitamin D metabolism and bone health is complex and deserves further attention in future studies.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Nutritional Sciences
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_7990
PhysicalDescription
Form (authority = gmd)
electronic resource
InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (xiii, 153 p. : ill.)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Nutrition
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Vitamin D
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Yang Wang
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Graduate School - New Brunswick Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore19991600001
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/T31R6TF1
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
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Wang
GivenName
Yang
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Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2017-04-12 10:58:50
AssociatedEntity
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Yang Wang
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Affiliation
Rutgers University. Graduate School - New Brunswick
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
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