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The evolution of microbial electron transfer on Earth

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TitleInfo
Title
The evolution of microbial electron transfer on Earth
Name (type = personal)
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Jelen
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Benjamin I.
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1979-
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Benjamin I. Jelen
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author
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Falkowski
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Paul G
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Paul G Falkowski
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Advisory Committee
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chair
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Young
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Lily Y
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Lily Y Young
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Vetriani
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Costantino
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Costantino Vetriani
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Reinfelder
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John R
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John R Reinfelder
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Yee
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Nathan
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Nathan Yee
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
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Boyd
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Eric
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Eric Boyd
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Advisory Committee
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outside member
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Rutgers University
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degree grantor
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School of Graduate Studies
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Text
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theses
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2019
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2019-01
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2019
Place
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xx
Language
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eng
Abstract (type = abstract)
All life on Earth is dependent on biologically mediated electron transfer (i.e., redox) reactions that are not at thermodynamic equilibrium. Biological redox reactions originally evolved in prokaryotes and ultimately, over the first ~ 2.5 billion years of Earth’s history, formed a global electronic circuit. To maintain the circuit on a global scale requires that oxidants and reductants be transported; the two major planetary electron conductors that connect global metabolism are geological fluids - primarily the atmosphere and the oceans. Because all organisms exchange gases with the environment, the evolution of redox reactions has been a major force in modifying the chemistry at Earth’s surface. First, a review is given of the discovery and consequences of redox reactions in microbes with a specific focus on the co-evolution of life and geochemical phenomena. With the larger picture in mind, the focus is then directed specifically to one of the earliest metabolic pathways on Earth. The reduction of elemental sulfur. is an important energy-conserving pathway in prokaryotes inhabiting geothermal environments, where sulfur respiration contributes to sulfur biogeochemical cycling. Despite this, the pathways through which elemental sulfur is reduced to hydrogen sulfide remain unclear in most microorganisms. We integrated growth experiments using Thermovibrio ammonificans, a deep-sea vent thermophile that conserves energy from the oxidation of hydrogen and reduction of both nitrate and elemental sulfur, with comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, coupled with scanning electron microscopy. Our results revealed that two members of the FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide disulfide reductase family, similar to sulfide-quinone reductase (SQR) and to NADH-dependent sulfur reductase (NSR), respectively, are over-expressed during sulfur respiration. Scanning electron micrographs and sulfur sequestration experiments indicated that direct access of T. ammonificans to sulfur particles strongly promoted growth. The sulfur metabolism of T. ammonificans appears to require abiotic transition from bulk elemental sulfur to polysulfide to nanoparticulate sulfur at an acidic pH, coupled to biological hydrogen oxidation. A coupled biotic-abiotic mechanism for sulfur respiration is put forward, mediated by an NSR-like protein as the terminal reductase.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Environmental Sciences
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Oxidation-reduction reaction
Subject (authority = ETD-LCSH)
Topic
Microbial metabolism -- Evolution
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Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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ETD_9209
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electronic resource
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Note
Supplementary File: Supplementary Tables 1-3
Extent
1 online resource (106 pages : illustrations)
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
Note (type = statement of responsibility)
by Benjamin I. Jelen
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TitleInfo
Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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rucore10001600001
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-03ry-en20
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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Rights

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The author owns the copyright to this work.
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Name
FamilyName
Jelen
GivenName
Benjamin
MiddleName
I.
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RightsEvent
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Permission or license
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2019-01-03 01:34:48
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Benjamin Jelen
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Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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