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The validity of ultrasound to assess body composition in adolescent and young adult ballet dancers

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Title
The validity of ultrasound to assess body composition in adolescent and young adult ballet dancers
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Chandler
NamePart (type = given)
Alexa J.
NamePart (type = date)
1993-
DisplayForm
Alexa J. Chandler
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
author
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Arent
NamePart (type = given)
Shawn M
DisplayForm
Shawn M Arent
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Campbell
NamePart (type = given)
Sara
DisplayForm
Sara Campbell
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Hoffman
NamePart (type = given)
Daniel
DisplayForm
Daniel Hoffman
Affiliation
Advisory Committee
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
internal member
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
Rutgers University
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
degree grantor
Name (type = corporate)
NamePart
School of Graduate Studies
Role
RoleTerm (authority = RULIB)
school
TypeOfResource
Text
Genre (authority = marcgt)
theses
OriginInfo
DateCreated (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019
DateOther (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (type = degree)
2019-10
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007); (type = text)
English
Abstract (type = abstract)
Body composition (BC) assessments are used to monitor athletes’ overall health and track changes over time. These assessments are preferable compared to body weight alone or body mass index (BMI) because they provide additional information in regards to specific tissue quantities. However, the most accurate tools, such as air displacement plethysmography (ADP), are expensive and not feasible for assessing large groups of athletes, and field tools, such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) lack adequate validity and reliability needed to accurately track changes over time. Ultrasound (US) is proposed as a valid laboratory method that can also be used in field settings, as it is relatively inexpensive and portable. PURPOSE: To assess the validity of B-mode US (B-US) compared to ADP to determine BC in high-level adolescent and young-adult ballet dancers. A second study (Study 2) was conducted to further assess validity of different devices by comparing B-US, A-mode US (A-US), and BIA to ADP, as well as to a 3-compartment (3C) model. METHODS: Adolescent and young-adult vocational ballet dancers (N=48; Mage= 16.6 ± 1.6; MBMI=19.3 ±1.9) had their BC assessed by ADP and B-US. A subset of subjects (n=22) participated in Study 2, where BC was assessed via ADP, B-US, A-US, and BIA. Additionally, body density via ADP and total body water via BIA were used to calculate BC from Siri’s 3C equation for a reference measure. Pearson’s correlations were used to determine relationships between reference and experimental methods. Dependent t-tests were used to determine significant differences between methods for %BF, FFM, and FM. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess mean differences and identify the 95% LOA. Significance was set at P<0.05 for all measures. RESULTS: The primary study showed significant, strong correlations between B-US and ADP for %BF (females r=0.941; males r=0.773), FM (females r=0.943; males r=0.726), and FFM (females r=0.954; males r=0.985). Despite strong correlations among females, B-US significantly overestimated %BF and FM, and significantly underestimated FFM (P<0.05) compared to ADP. However, there were no differences between devices for any measure in males. In Study 2, there were no significant differences between devices for all measures in both males and females. There were strong correlations between ADP and both US devices, but lower correlations between ADP and BIA compared to US. Additionally, there were higher correlations between ADP and B-US than with A-US for %BF and FM in both males and females. As seen in the first study, FFM correlations were similarly high for both sexes across all devices. When comparing B-US and A-US to the 3C model, there were higher correlations for B-US than A-US for %BF in both sexes, and for FM in females only. Additionally, there were significant differences between A-US and 3C %BF, FM, and FFM results in males, but not in females. As seen in the previous analyses, there were higher correlations for FFM than there were for both %BF and FM for all methods in both males and females. CONCLUSION: B-US and A-US are valid BC assessment tools for adolescent and young-adult ballet dancers. It is possible that the combination of small errors in both FM and FFM measures resulted in larger %BF error, indicting these tools may be better suited for determining absolute FFM and FM rather than %BF. Overall, there was better agreement between the 3C model and both US devices in females compared to males, but there were higher correlations between 3C and B-US than 3C and A-US for both sexes. Future research should explore using a 4C reference method, as well as the use of different density models and prediction equations to improve %BF accuracy when using US.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Kinesiology and Applied Physiology
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Body composition -- Measurement -- Technique
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Ballet dancers -- Health and hygiene
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Ultrasonic imaging
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = RULIB)
ETD
Identifier
ETD_10214
PhysicalDescription
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InternetMediaType
application/pdf
InternetMediaType
text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (viii, 85 pages) : illustrations
Note (type = degree)
M.S.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Identifier (type = local)
rucore10001600001
Location
PhysicalLocation (authority = marcorg); (displayLabel = Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-ekp7-j591
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD graduate
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Rights

RightsDeclaration (ID = rulibRdec0006)
The author owns the copyright to this work.
RightsHolder (type = personal)
Name
FamilyName
Chandler
GivenName
Alexa
Role
Copyright Holder
RightsEvent
Type
Permission or license
DateTime (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact); (point = start)
2019-09-03 19:28:27
AssociatedEntity
Name
Alexa Chandler
Role
Copyright holder
Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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License
Name
Author Agreement License
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I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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DateCreated (point = end); (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019-09-06T17:56:24
DateCreated (point = end); (encoding = w3cdtf); (qualifier = exact)
2019-09-06T17:56:24
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