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Plant recruitment dynamics in urban forests: consequences for seed and seedling establishment

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Title
Plant recruitment dynamics in urban forests: consequences for seed and seedling establishment
Name (type = personal)
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Piana
NamePart (type = given)
Max Robert
NamePart (type = date)
1983-
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Max Robert Piana
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author
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NamePart (type = family)
Handel
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Steven N
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Steven N Handel
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Advisory Committee
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chair
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NamePart (type = family)
Aronson
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Myla FJ
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Myla FJ Aronson
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Advisory Committee
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co-chair
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Morin
NamePart (type = given)
Peter J
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Peter J Morin
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
NamePart (type = family)
Pickett
NamePart (type = given)
Steward TA
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Steward TA Pickett
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Advisory Committee
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internal member
Name (type = personal)
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Hallett
NamePart (type = given)
Richard A
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Richard A Hallett
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Advisory Committee
Role
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outside member
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Rutgers University
Role
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degree grantor
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School of Graduate Studies
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school
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Text
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theses
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2019
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2019-10
Language
LanguageTerm (authority = ISO 639-3:2007); (type = text)
English
Abstract (type = abstract)
Plant recruitment dynamics in urban ecosystems can be influenced by multiple co-occurring and often exacerbated conditions and stressors common to most cities. Urban associated habitat fragmentation and land transformation, altered climate and microclimates, biotic invasion, pollution (e.g. elevated atmospheric carbon and nitrogen), and human activity, both direct and indirect, are all observed to have species-specific effects that may limit or facilitate recruitment success. A core question is whether urban ecosystems are functionally different, and if so, what that means for management and restoration practice. This dissertation investigates the application of plant life history frameworks and analyses in the context of urban forest populations. Chapter 1 presents a review of recent literature and a modified recruitment limitation framework for understanding plant recruitment dynamics within urban ecosystems. In the subsequent chapters (2-5) I present a series of related studies that examine seed and site limitation in urban and rural oak-hickory forests located in the New York City metropolitan area. Chapter 2 compares the advance regeneration of native tree species in these sites and the implications for urban forest management. I found urban forests to be seedling limited, however advance regeneration stages were not different from rural forests. Chapter 3 uses the recruitment limitation framework to investigate the relative contribution of seed and site as limiting factors for seedling establishment. Urban and rural forests were both strongly site limited. The native canopy in urban forests is limited by site factors, not seed availability. Chapter 4 presents findings from a seed addition experiment that tested the influence of seed predation and herbivory on early seedling establishment in urban and rural forests. This experiment confirms that seed predation and herbivory pressure is greater in urban forests and contributes to the observed differences in urban and rural forest seedling recruitment. Finally, Chapter 5 presents a multi-year experiment of seed predation dynamics that identifies differences in the temporal pattern of seed removal in urban and rural forests; a potentially critical shift in forest function. Collectively, this dissertation identifies ecological mechanisms that limit plant recruitment in urban forests. A comprehensive understanding of urban recruitment limitation, as a scientific foundation with respect to plant abundance and distribution, will allow us to successfully conserve, manage, and restore plant communities to enhance the human experience of nature in cities.
Subject (authority = RUETD)
Topic
Ecology and Evolution
Subject (authority = LCSH)
Topic
Urban ecology (Biology)
RelatedItem (type = host)
TitleInfo
Title
Rutgers University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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ETD
Identifier
ETD_10259
PhysicalDescription
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application/pdf
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text/xml
Extent
1 online resource (xix, 190 pages) : illustrations
Note (type = degree)
Ph.D.
Note (type = bibliography)
Includes bibliographical references
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School of Graduate Studies Electronic Theses and Dissertations
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rucore10001600001
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NjNbRU
Identifier (type = doi)
doi:10.7282/t3-fd7p-v675
Genre (authority = ExL-Esploro)
ETD doctoral
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The author owns the copyright to this work.
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Name
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Piana
GivenName
Max
Role
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Permission or license
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2019-09-19 09:52:36
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Name
Max Piana
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Affiliation
Rutgers University. School of Graduate Studies
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Author Agreement License
Detail
I hereby grant to the Rutgers University Libraries and to my school the non-exclusive right to archive, reproduce and distribute my thesis or dissertation, in whole or in part, and/or my abstract, in whole or in part, in and from an electronic format, subject to the release date subsequently stipulated in this submittal form and approved by my school. I represent and stipulate that the thesis or dissertation and its abstract are my original work, that they do not infringe or violate any rights of others, and that I make these grants as the sole owner of the rights to my thesis or dissertation and its abstract. I represent that I have obtained written permissions, when necessary, from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation and will supply copies of such upon request by my school. I acknowledge that RU ETD and my school will not distribute my thesis or dissertation or its abstract if, in their reasonable judgment, they believe all such rights have not been secured. I acknowledge that I retain ownership rights to the copyright of my work. I also retain the right to use all or part of this thesis or dissertation in future works, such as articles or books.
Copyright
Status
Copyright protected
Availability
Status
Open
Reason
Permission or license
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2019-09-23T13:01:13
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2019-09-23T13:01:13
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